PIC/8F452 The microcontroller that has been decided upon for this module as explained already in this report. B.LDR The device used to measure light intensity as the light sensor in this circuit is an LDR (Light Dependant Resistor). As the name shows, the resistance of this device changes with light intensity. For higher light intensity, the resistance is lower while the resistance increases as light intensity decreases. The working principle in short is that the light intensity provides energy to the electrons in the device to conduct electricity.
In metal film resistor, the film is constructed by using the metals such as nickel chromium whereas in metal oxide film resistors, the film is constructed by using the metal oxide such as tin oxide. The cost of metal oxide film resistor is low compared to the carbon composition resistor. These resistors operate at high temperatures. Metal glaze resistor The metal glaze resistor is a type of passive component in which glass powder and metal particles mixture is used to restrict the flow of electric current to certain
It consists of ALU and Memory. It read inputs and according to program it executes 3. MOTOR : The motor which we are going to use their specification are Parameter Rating • Voltage : 415 V • Current 1.12A • KW/(HP) 0.37(0.5) • RPM 1440 • Frequency 50Hz • Ambient temperature 50 C 4. Programmable Logic Control (PLC) : A digitally operated electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes. Function of PLC is to : • Control a high voltage output with a low voltage input.
Working of IR spectrophotometer- Incident radiation is split by instrument in two beam which are energetically and optical identical. One beam pass through sample and other through reference cell. When sample cell contain the sample half beam travelling through it undergoes a decrease in intensity. The two half beam are recombined, they produce an single which is measured by detector. The detector passed the single to recorder through a servomotor which give an output.
The input to the PLL is the three-phase grid voltage, which will be converted in to synchronously rotating reference frame and the PLL gets locked by setting V*d to be zero. Where V*d is the direct-axis reference voltage. The loop filter PI is a low pass filter and is used to provide the controlled signal to the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) which acts as an integrator. The output of the PI- controller is the grid frequency, which will be integrated by the VCO to obtain the phase angle of the converter. Whenever the difference of phase angles between the inverter and the grid reduced to zero, PLL becomes active which results in synchronously rotating voltage vectors with Vd as zero and Vq will be of the magnitude of grid voltage.
The output temperature is continuously monitored by 2-Wire RTD sensor implemented in the feedback closed loop path. The output of the sensor is in voltage form which is converted into standard 4-20 mA output which is proportional to the temperature. The PC based controller compares the
8. Abbas Emami- Naeini and Dick de Roover Control in Semiconductor Wafer Manufacturing 9. A. Emami-Naeini, J. L. Ebert, D. de Roover, and S.Ghosal, “Model-Based Control for Semiconductorand Advanced Materials Processing: An Overview,”in Proc. American Control Conference, 2004 10. Henrik Pedersen, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden; Simon D. Elliott, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork, Ireland ; Studying chemical vapor deposition processes with theoretical chemistry.
The device work by filtering the dust into the sensor. The particle from the dust that are generated by the heater resistor pass through its sensing point, the light receptor will receive the scattered light and transform it into pulse signal (known as Low Pulse Occupancy Time, LPO time) which proportional to PM concentration. If the sensor detect PM10, the LED will be ON, buzzer sound for unhealthy level and LCD will display the reading as shown in Table 1. Next, Figure 4, show the comparison of sample data tested along with EVM-7. EVM-7 is a certified device use by KKM that can measure particulate matter and many more.
It also worked as a Bypass capacitor for the LM338K voltage regulator. D. Voltage Regulator Voltage Regulator is a vital part of this circuit. It is one of the main components responsible for fast charging. For this work Voltage Regulator LM338K has been used. Notable features of LM338K are: • 7A Maximum output current • Adjustable output 1.2V to 37V • Current Limit Constant with Temperature • Output is Short-Circuit
Fig. 1.1 • The efficiency of this device is around 5-8 % (Wikipedia.org).Generally, older devices are made from bimetallic junctions.it was very bulky. But, now a days highly doped semiconductors are used which is made from bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and lead telluride (PbTe). Practically Peltier cell working based on three effects 1) Peltier effect. 2) Thomson effect.