Often times this energy is visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, 400-750nm. Different wavelengths result in different colors. Knowing roughly what the the wavelength of the substances are, the energy of the substance can be found the equation E=ch/λ. The breakdown of this equation is E stands for energy, c is the speed of
There are objects built into the telescope so that data can be recorded. One of these things is the collimated detector, which is what collects the X-ray signals. The electronic eye then records the location of where the rays came from. The pictures that are taken by the telescope show the pattern of the waves and the time and angle of
Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. 8. You should be able to change to the next objective lenses with only slight focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available. If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in place.
There are three types of cones in our retinas. These three receptors each contain a different pigment. The pigments differ slightly in their chemical properties and subsequently in their relative ability to absorb light of different wavelengths. These cones are loosely called "blue", "green", and "red" as they are supposed reflect their peak sensitivities on
5. X-RAY DIFFRACTION * XRD is a technique generally employed for elucidation of structure and arrangement of atoms. * In our analysis the structure of GO and PCBGO were analysed. * The interlayer distance upon functionalisation can be seen as a function of oxidation. * The d spacing for GO= 7.82 Å from diffraction peak at 11.4 degrees for the  plane.
the specimen that is being observed is to be seen on a glass slide for example in the investigation of a unicellular organism in the experiment a pond water sample was taken and the sample was then put on the glass slide which was then observed under the light and magnification of the light microscope . moreover the contrast of the microscope has to be set in a certain way that the specimen is clearly visible for this purpose sometimes but actually most of the times stains and special dyes are used in the specimen which is under observation but there was no dye used in the conducted experiment .dyes and stains are usually used to improve the contrast of the specimen and it absorbs the transmitting light and improves the overall observation of the specimen. Different parts of light microscope cooperate and help in the observation of the specimen taken, the light from the microscope that is transmitting on the specimen taken is focused by the condenser lens and then it is collected by the objective lens. The powers are then
In the year of 1905, Albert Einstein published a paper advancing the hypothesis that light energy is carried in discrete quantized packets to explain experimental data from the photoelectric effect. This model added to the advancement of quantum mechanics. c. Reason for listening: This topic is important because people often only think about Einstein’s theory of general relativity, but he offered so much more. d. Credibility: For my informative speech, I have conducted extensive research on the scientific contributions of Albert Einstein. e. Thesis Statement: People view Einstein work as just if he has only contributed a few things to sciences and physics, but he did a greater amount then the majority of people know.
Among them are double random phase encoding (DRPE) , digital holography , Fractional Fourier transform FrFT , , optical exclusive- OR , virtual (digital) optics , watermarking, and polarization . These techniques use a complete optical set up which include; source light, lenses, mirrors, splitters, spatial filters, gratings…etc. Conventional optical encryption techniques are based on the classical 4-f system architecture ,see figure 1.1, , A two-lens processor, that uses two fixed random phase-masks one in the input and the other in the Fourier plane, respectively. In this technique the original image will converted into a stationary white noise  and the encrypted data is complex and have to be stored holographically. To record high quality approximations of both the amplitude and phase of complex valued wavefronts output by the optical encryption systems, digital holographic techniques have been used.
The plano-convex lens is replaced with another glass plate and a section of optical fibre was placed between them at one end. Light falling normally on the plates will be reflected back out with a phase difference. Figure 3: Apparatus set up for finding the thickness of an optical fibre, showing the optical fibre between the two glass plates This is due to the fact that some of the coherent light waves were reflected from the top plate and others from the bottom, this path difference resulted in the interference of these waves with one another. This caused an interference pattern similar to the below image: Figure 4: Image similar to the observed interference pattern.  This pattern is also linked to Equations 1&2 as stated previously.