Microstrip Antennas (MSA)

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Microstrip antennas (MSAs) have a conducting patch printed on a microwave substrate. Some of the most commonly used shapes are square, circular, triangular, semicircular, sectoral, and annular ring shapes. Radiation from the MSA can occur from the fringing fields between the periphery of the patch and the ground plane. The MSA has proved to be an excellent radiator for many applications because of its several advantages [KPRAY] which is listed below.
• They are lightweight and have a small volume and a low-profile planar configuration.
• They can be made conformal to the host surface.
• Their ease of mass production using printed-circuit technology leads to a low fabrication cost.
• They are easier to integrate with other MICs(?) on the same substrate.
• They allow both linear polarization and Circular Polarization.
• They can be made compact for use in personal mobile communication.
• They allow for dual- and triple-frequency operations. Due to these advantages, MSAs are extensively used in wireless applications replacing conventional antennas. However, MSAs also suffer from disadvantages [KPRAY] such as narrow
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For the wideband antenna, it is important to stabilize the radiation patterns over the whole operating band. With the electric size varying large, the radiation patterns could be distorted seriously in wide band. Some wideband antennas had achieved large impedance bandwidth in the literatures [P. Li, G.Marchais, S.W. Qu, L. Li, J], but the available bandwidth of antennas of these wideband antennas were often limited by their distorted radiation pattern in spite of its large impedance bandwidth. To achieve large impedance bandwidth with stable radiation patterns, Quan Xue et al. placed a circular ring within the cavity between the bowtie and the ground plane to stabilize the radiation Patterns [S.-W.

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