Midnight Judges: The Day Before John Adams

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The day before John Adams left office, he signed documents to appoint the Midnight Judges, who were Federalists. William Marbury was one of the judges in which he was appointed for Justice of the Peace. James Madison didn’t deliver them, at the request of Thomas Jefferson. Marbury petitioned Madison over the failure of the delivery. Based on a 4-0 vote by the justices, Chief Justice John Marshall announced that although Marbury had a right to his notice, the Supreme Court couldn’t force Madison to deliver them. It was also ruled that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unlawful and gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial

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