The long working hours are a hindrance stressor as it cannot be overcome and it part of the job. The result was the lack of time I had to do academic work which could not be assisted as I need to have a job in order to sustain myself so therefore I cannot remove the stressor. If the pressure of a stressor is persistent and extreme then the pressure leads to stress which leads to illnesses and mentally and physically damaging effects (Giga, Cooper & Faragher, 2003). I started feeling the physiological effects of exhaustion and burnout due to not having a break to rest, working long hours and a lack of sleep due to having to stay up late during the work to do my academic work. I started feeling the psychological effect of stress which entailed the lack of ability to concentrate at work and at university as I was constantly thinking about the amount of academic I had to do before the weekend (Heaney, 2003).
This paper is mainly focused on overview of migration in India. Migration in India is mostly influenced by Social Structures and pattern of development. The development policies by all the governments since Independence have accelerated the process of migration. Uneven development is the main cause of Migration. Added to it, are the disparities, Inter regional and amongst different socio-economic classes.
Migration has been an integral part and a very important factor in redistributing population over time and space. India has witnessed the waves of migrants coming to the country from Central and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia. In fact, the history of India is a history of waves of migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts of the country. Similarly, large numbers of people from India too have been migrating to places in search of better opportunities specially to the countries of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America, Australia and East and South East Asia. Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently in the new location.
Due to diversity in nature of migration in India, causes of migration are bound to vary. Migration is influenced both by pattern of development (NCRL, 1991) and social structure (MOSSE, 2002).According to NCRL; the main cause of seasonal migration is uneven development. The present chapter analyses the principal causes of migration as revealed by migrants themselves as well as by their family members. Migration occurs when workers in origin areas lack suitable options for employment and there is some expectation of improvement in circumstances due to migration. After the survey it was observed that more than 60% of the population migrates due to push factors like poverty, low rural income etc.
This has a detrimental effect on a young person’s start in life as they may have to support their family or live on their own, inevitably leading to relative poverty. Women and young adults are put into vertical segregation immediately in their working life, whereas, horizontal segregation has seen changes in gender roles in the last decade(REF). In addition to this, mental health issues are more likely to occur due to these restrictions, as a poor working environment can trigger a depressive illness(REF). The thought of being made redundant or being in a low paid job, creates financial difficulties and stress. Leading onto suicide rates, for males in the UK statistics revealed an average of 6 thousand per year committed suicide, with the age being between 25 to 34, highlighting mental health issues in today’s
These developments coupled with British power in India. It changed the entire scenario of cotton hand spinning and hand weaving in India. In 1771, the first cotton textile mill was established in England. After that the story of transformation of India began from the biggest producer and exporter of hand spinning and hand weaving to only
Long working hours have severe effects on people. Firstly, number of work accidents increases as working hours goes up mainly due to lack of attention resulted by fatigue(Mutevellioğlu , 2009) Secondly, following a long-work, people normally tend to feel very stressful and extremely tired. Therefore, instead of spending time on different leisure time activities, what they only do is eating and sleeping in front of the TV. As a result, social life is almost set to zero. This triggers problems among family members as well and leads to huge problems between them.
The authors identify three different situations based on the World Bank’s 2008 World Development Report: the agriculture based countries, transforming countries as well as urbanized countries. Most countries have evolved over the years moving from agricultural based to transforming countries and this is demonstrated with a graph from the World Bank. They then identify the peculiarities of peasant farming in Asia (overcrowded people on few lands), Latin America (latifundios and minifundios ) and Africa (subsistence agriculture) examining the sizes of farmland and distribution also using graphs. The next section highlights the important role of women in agriculture in developing countries. According to the paper, the role of women is mostly ignored by government and policy makers although women are the main practitioners of subsistence farming to maintain the livelihood of their families.
Some of the major evidence in the history of agricultural policy has in India during the period of British Raj include establishment of an Imperial Department of Agriculture in 1881, constitution of two Famine Commissions, one in 1880 and another in 1901, an Irrigation Commission in 1901, a Royal Commission on Agriculture in 1928, and launching of a Grow More Food Campaign (GMFC) in 1943. In January 1946, the government issued for the first time wadia Statement on Agricultural and Food Policy in India (Singh, 1992). The main objective of the agricultural policies in the colonial era was to facilitate production of food and raw materials for export to Great Britain and to provide relief to farmers during Periods of famines (GOI, 1976: 62). The first ever National Agriculture Policy was announced on 28th July, 2000.” “The National Policy on Agriculture seeks to actualize the vast untapped growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure to support faster agricultural development, promote value addition, accelerate the growth of agro business, create employment in rural areas, secure a fair standard of living for the farmers and agricultural workers and their families, discourage migration to urban areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalization and globlization.
According to Singh in 1992, the statement on agricultural policy in india “the main objective of the agricultural policies in the colonial era was to facilitate production of food and raw materials for export to great britain and to provide relief to farmers during periods of famines (goi, 1976: 62). the first ever national agriculture policy was announced on 28th july, 2000.” the national agriculture policy aim to actualize vast untapped growth growth potential of Indian agriculture,make a strong to the agriculture sector and lead a steady faster growth for agriculture development. promote value addition, accelerate the growth of agro business. and create agriculture employment in rural ares as well as improve the stranded of living and secure the workers of agriculture and discourage the migration in urban ares ,and discourage migration to urban areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalization and glottalization.