Migration In India

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Migration has become a very common phenomenon. According to ILO every 1 out of 8 people in India is a migrant. It has been considered as a significant feature of livelihoods in developing countries to pursue better living standards. It has been considered a principle factor in changing demographic and cultural change in both sending and receiving communities. Many theories have been gaining importance in recent years. The process of theorization of migration started in 19th century. Sociologist, geographers and economist emphasized on different factors of migration like social, demographic, economic factors etc. But the economist has focused on causes and consequences of migration. They have been discussing about unemployment, low wages and…show more content…
Quite often their women do more physical labour in their agricultural fields and forest than that of the tribal men. Tribal women have usually enjoyed a higher social status in their own communities than other Indian women in general. Tribes are engaged in various occupations like hunting, fishing, gathering of forest products, shifting cultivation to settled agriculture, rural crafts and artisans etc. Besides routine household work, the tribal women work in the agricultural fields, forests for long hours. The overall output if seen in terms of number of hours of work is low. Their schedule of long working hours continues even during pregnancy, natal and postnatal stages also due to which they have a negative energy balance, high morbidity rate, and low child survival rate. They suffer from taboos and superstitions and remain deprived of the benefits from existing development and welfare…show more content…
In the 18th and 19th Centuries, the migration was forced as the British employed tribal labour to work in the Assam tea gardens. However, since the latter half of the 20th Century, tribal people from these areas have started migrating voluntarily to earn their livelihood. In the last century, a noticeable change was visible in the nature and pattern of tribal migration. Between 1950 and 1980, tribal people migrated to the rural areas of Bihar, West Bengal mainly to work as agricultural labour (Mosse et al., 1997). But from 1980 onwards, they started migrating to bigger cities like Delhi, Kolkata and

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