Migration: The Three Major Causes Of Poverty

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Movement is everywhere in today’s world. Someone is always moving from one location to another. Sometimes the move is only temporarily, other times a person plans on never returning. Migration is often the cause of this global movement phenomenon. Whether it is internal migration or international migration, people often decide to move for a variety of reasons. It could be for a new job that offers higher pay or to escape a country where they would no longer be safe. Migration also tends to occur more with people who have lower incomes. The exact reason why people move tends to be very individualistic, however, in the broad scope,all reasons fall within certain categories. The three major causes of migrations within people living in poverty…show more content…
Development economics allows one to see how money has an even greater influence in impoverished people’s decision of whether to migrate or not. The rural-urban migration theory states that in developing countries, such as China, a large portion of economic development comes from reallocating labor in the agriculture sector and rural areas to the industrial sector and urban areas (Todaro 338) This requires many people who were living in the rural areas of a country to move to the urbanized cities for work. The promise of higher wages lures them, with the idea that they’ll be able to provide more to their families. An example of this is emulated in Michelle Loyalka’s “ Teenage Beauty Queens “ in the collection Eating Bitterness, as many young girls who lived in rural China take on vocational jobs because of the promise of making money. (Loyalka) A second economic theory that contributes to the large number people who lived in rural areas migrating to the cities is the idea of Urban Bias. Economic Development by Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith defines Urban Bias as “The notion that most governments in developing countries favor the urban sector in their development policies, thereby creating a widening gap between the urban and rural economies”(336). In other words, governments show a bias to the urban sectors and will often put more time and effort into increasing the quality of living in these areas. As a result,…show more content…
A country that exemplifies such culture is Japan. In Japan, women are expected to marry and bear children, and any women who does not would be shamed by their society. The novel The Buddha in the Attic by Julie Osaka takes readers on a journey through many Japanese immigrants experiences. Within this novel, the author writes “but even the most reluctant of us had to admit it was better to marry a stranger in America than grow old with a farmer from the village” (Osaka 7). Many of these women came to the conclusion that if they had to marry, then they would rather migrate somewhere else than to stay in their villages. They often felt that Japanese men in their villages did not treat them fairly. This is cultural of course because it represents how gender roles fit into Japanese society. For others, no one in their villages would marry them, leaving them with no other choice. Unfortunately, they would soon be disappointed to learn that the men they sold themselves to are the same Japanese men who had simply migrated earlier in the search of work. Most of these women are also people of lower income status, and could not afford any other solution, such as the family paying another family for their children to wed. The culture of Japan also would shame any of them who decided to return, so anyone who had chosen to leave, could not return. As Osaka writes “some of us worked quickly because our

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