Procedure : In this test method, the ultrasonic pulse is produced by the transducer which is held in contact with one surface of the concrete member under test. After traversing a known path length Q in the concrete, the pulse of vibrations is converted into an electrical signal by the second transducer held in contact with other surface of the concrete member and an electronic 2 timing circuit enables the transit time (T) of the pulse to be measured. The pulse velocity (V) is given by : V = L/T 8.3.2 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method This method involves the measurement of velocity of electrostatic pulses passing through concrete from a transmitting transducer to a receiving transducer. The pulse also can be generated by hammer blow. The pulse generator circuit consists of electronic circuit for generating pulses and a transducer for transmitting these electronic pulses into mechanical energy having frequency 15 to 50 kHz.
12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
The theoretical yield should have been more than the actual yield, and the percentages should have been less than 100. The actual data is the result on our experiment vs theoretical, which is based on the calculations above. I have also learned to pay more attention to draining out all of the product completely before continuing to test the experiment, as any small drop of contaminant can veer our results into a different
In the article “The Big One” Berkeley seismologist Robert Nadeau states “ A lot of randomness is lack of knowledge.” In this statement the word randomness is referring to earthquakes meaning we only have a small knowledge about the science of this activity. Nadeau uses this statement to convince us to realise that earthquakes cannot truly be predicted, in reality the only resource we have is presumptions. Scientists prove that we do not have enough of the necessary tools needed to produce the correct idea of when an earthquake is actually going to occur. The problem is that scientists didn 't know how earthquakes and faults had anything to do with each other until after the San Francisco earthquake on April 17,1906. Since then scientist have move past that.
(Engineers say "Stress is proportional to strain".) In symbols, F = kx, where F is the force, x is the stretch, and k is a constant of proportionality. If Hooke's Law is correct, then, the graph of force versus stretch will be a straight line. Tensile testing experiment Purpose of the experiment: Tensile testing is one of the most fundamental tests for engineering,and provides valuable information about a material and its associated properties. These properties can be used for design and analysis of engineering structures, and for developing new materials that better suit a specified use.The basic idea of a tensile test is to place a sample of a material between two fixtures called "grips" which clamp the material.
Lab Report on the Tensile, Torsion and Bend testing of Mild Steel Nomenclature: Symbol Description Units A Area m2 E Tensile modulus n/a G Shear modulus n/a J Polar 2nd moment of area n/a L Gauge length mm M Bending moment Nm R Radius mm T Torque Nm b Breadth mm d Depth of beam mm h height mm r Secondary radius mm θ Angle of twist radians π pi n/a ϒ Shear strain mm Shear stress N/m2 Poissons ratio n/a Ɛ Strain mm σ Stress N/m2 σy Yield stress N/m2 Ixx 2nd Moment of area n/a Ɛz Longitudinal strain mm Ɛy Lateral strain mm y Yield strength in shear N/m Objectives (ii) To investigate the relationship between Torque (T), and angle of twist θ of a circular cross
This step affects the end result when weighing the precipitate because in the reaction, the Al3+ is the limiting reagent and is in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with the precipitate product. If the pipet is read too low, then the result would be an artificially low concentration because the mass would be lower. If the pipet is read too high, then the result would be an artificially high concentration because the mass would be higher. (3) On Day 3, if we did not rewash the beaker with DI water after initially pouring the solution into the crucible to be filtered, it would affect the final results of the experiment. If the beaker was not washed, not all the solution/precipitate would end up in the crucible/filtration system, which would mean a possible low reading on the mass and concentration of Al3+ because some of the precipitate would remain on the beaker.
Usually the fundamental laws of physics are ignored and surely they are not the researchers who have the knowledge to improve the laws. On the other hand it must be stated that it is not always easy to be proved theoretically that it is impossible for a manufactured item to function
The problems that genetic engineering poses are only speculations as of today and have yet to be confirmed because little have been tested in the real world due to strict laws and no human being is willing to be a test subject. Hence scientist should continue researching on genes and there should be prohibition of
Shop primer has two important functions which are preserving the steel material for the final product and aiding in the productivity of process building a ship. Zinc coating systems protect coatings in much the same manner as galvanizing. Then, the process of building a ship is cutting steel. Steel plates are being cut into the parts that will form to the hull and deck sections of the ship. The process of heating and bending a steel plate into curved shapes is of great importance in shipbuilding and requires sophisticated skill and technique.