Prisoners are sent to sessions where they endure things such as electric shock, rat caging of the face stretched and beaten. Winston received shock as one of his punishments. “He started and almost cried out. A pang of pain had shot through his body. O’Brien had pushed the lever of the dial up to thirty-five”(331).
Evidence proved this with the publicity of the Abu Ghraib incident, where many inmates were tortured by United States soldiers. These soldiers were convicted for their crimes but it was taken care of “in house” as people would say. The United Nations did not persecute the said soldiers further than the United States military court, nor did they investigate the claims of the soldiers that they were under orders. Although the United States used torture to great effect in the past, torture is cruel, inhumane, and has no place in modern society. Torture is cruel, it leaves the victims devastated both physically and mentally.
In Dr. Philip Zimbardo’s psychology experiment called the Stanford prison experiment, he came to realization without rules and structure of the guards, they can take matters into their own hands and do whatever they want. The prisoners were deindividualized and were just called by their number on their uniform. The cruel and unusual punishments that the guards inflicted got too out of hand would cause the prisoners to have a mental breakdown and wouldn 't be able to finish the experiment. Zimbardo called this the lucifer effect. In William Golding’s novel “Lord of the Flies” and Sheryl St. Germain’s poem “In the Garden of Eden,” Lucifer and evil are also temptations, which eventually creates the fall of man.
We think too highly of ourselves and think that we are too great for each other and for our inferiors. This is actually a common human trait. Megalomania is actually a very serious and severe disease but according to various studies, everyone suffers from it just a bit, if not a lot. Some people have more than other and some people have very serious cases of it. The people with megalomania think they are all powerful and great and that they can control everything.
This particular propaganda convinced adults and kids that jews needed to be exterminated from Germany to reach its goals. Hitler set out to rid Germany of the Slavs, Romas, gays, jews, and others that did not fit his idea so he used propaganda to convince them of it ( the rise of the nazis 60 ). Hitler’s use of propaganda did not only effect the jews and unwanted, it, according to the book Tell Them We Remember the Story of the Holocaust, “ the executioners were ‘oridinary men’ who followed the orders of their commanding officers.” “ some killers drank heavily to dull their thoughts and feelings “ (susan d. Bachrach 43).
Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Solitary Nation Documentary Introduction Solitary prison does not only make a prisoner commit more crimes but also have devastating psychological effects on the individual. In the Solitary Nation film, the prisoner narrates on his ordeal having been out in prison for arson. The prisoner describes the solitary cell as being buried alive and being at a place where no one wants you (Edge).
“The My Lai Massacre: A Military Crime of Obedience” is an article written by Herbert C. Kelman and V. Lee Hamilton, that chronicles the story of the My Lai Massacre of 1968 and the resulting investigation. The article also contains the author's opinions on the military’s stance on following orders, specifically following orders that could be considered illegal. This is also discussed in Marianne Szegedy-Madzak’s “The Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal: Sources of Sadism”. In the article she discusses how guards will torture prisoners, because it is excused as a stress-relief tool, and were even congratulated by superiors for their actions.
‘If you're a leader, you should never forget that everyone needs encouragement. Who ever receives it young or old, successful or less-than- successful unknown or famous- is changed by racism’ said John Maxwell. The beating caused riots and people felt more threatened all of a sudden, this all had a big impact on the way people think and how conscious they are and affected by their attitudes.
This concept sparked a curiosity in psychologist Stanley Milgram to discover how authoritative figures influence a person's decision making---which soon led him to conduct his most famous experiments known today. After watching Nazi generals, one after the other, plead they were only following orders during the Nuremberg trials he took away one main concept; people can, and will blindly follow authority. To test this idea,
One spy was caught sharing information with the USSR and went to jail. People in education were also being monitored because they had the ability to poison the children’s minds by teaching them that Communism is a good thing. The US had legitimate reasons to fear people in the field of Education, Science, and Government.
Hitler tried to do these experiments at every concentration camp,that he possibly could. The most unliked of all the experiments was done on twins, and gypsies. They did the ideological experiments, mainly on gypsies. They were trying to figure out how the different “races” reacted to the experiments done on them. This personally I thought was the horrific out of all of them.
The government justified these actions by claiming that these countries were falling under a communist influence. In reality, the goal of these actions was to protect American businesses in these countries. This rationalization was used to prove to the public that the actions were necessary. In all of these instances, the overthrow of strong leaders by the United States caused many problems that are still being dealt with
Because the German-Jew relationship during the Holocaust had interested him, psychologist Stanley Milgram (1963) had conducted an experiment on “destructive obedience”, to determine the conditions where the subject will obey authority and the conditions where they will disobey. In the experiment, the subject is told by the experimenter to give shocks from a scale of low to dangerously high to the person on the electric chair (who was an actor) when they give a wrong answer. The shocks were not real, but prior to the experiment, the subjects were given a small shock to influence them that the shocks in the experiment were true. Surprisingly, Milgram’s experiment resulted with many of the subjects obeying the experimenter, continually increasing the shock level to the “dangerous zone”. There was a noticeable arousal of conflict shown on the subject’s face when the person receiving the shocks displayed discomfort (Milgram S., 1973, p. 63).
He set out to prove that individuals would obey with the request of authority figures. McLeod in his summary states, “Milgram was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person. Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities for example, Germans in WWII.” (McLeod, The Milgram Experiment, 2007) The experiment was carried out by asking participants/teachers to deliver a series of electrical shocks to another person when a question was answered incorrectly.