While a prevalence of 10 per cent LBW babies has been reported for the privileged high socio-economic class, nearly 56 per cent birth were classified as LBW for the poor urban slum community347. In a study conducted in slums of Kolkata, prevalence of LBW was reported as 28.6 per cent348. In Trivandrum out of 3835 singleton newborns studied for anthropometric indices at birth, 15 per cent were low-birth weight. Mean birth weight increased with increases in maternal socioeconomic status 349. CAUSES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Although pre-term deliveries and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are the usual causes of small-for-age infants, individual size differences among newborns who are neither growth-retarded nor preterm have also been
While the prevalence of malnutrition (height for age) in areas with an urban population share below 20% is 48.9%, this figure is only 25.3% in areas with an urban population share between 50% and 90%. The same trend is found with weight for age: while the rate is about 26.2% in areas with an urban population share below 20%, the figure is only 9.5% in areas where that share is between 50% and 90%. Differences between urban and rural areas in health care centres and access to health facilities explain the differences in life expectancy and childhood malnutrition. On average, only 46.2% of African children are taken to a health provider: only 41.7% in areas with an urban share less than 20% and 51.2% in areas with an urban share between 50% and 90%. Moreover, births attended by skilled staff are only 38.3% in areas with an urban population share below 20% and 78.0% in areas with that share between 50% and 90%.
The given table shows information about the changes in the number of children that Australian women in 40-44 age group had between 1981 and 2006. It can be clearly seen from the chart that there was a tendency towards fewer offspring and that having two children was the most popular choice. In the given period, over half of 40-44 year old Australia women gave birth to two to three kids. Although the percentage of women who were mother of two went up over time, there was a gradual decrease in the proportion of those who had gone into labor three times. The 1981-1986 period witnessed the most significant increase in the percentage of women in their early 40s who had given birth to 2 kids (29% to 35.6%).
The findings with 1:8 ratios showed the lowest labor cost but it was associated with high patient mortality rates. For every decline in nurse to patient ratio showed labor cost increased but mortality rates declined (Rothberg et al., 2005). To view the information in dollar amounts, the savings of even one life by lowering nurse to patient ratio from 1:8 to 1:7 would amount to $46,000. To compare, if nurse to patient ratio is decreased from 1:5 to 1:4, it would cost about $142,000 (Rothberg et al., 2005). In terms of saving in labor cost, it was found that if nurse to patient ratio increased from 1:6 to 1:7, this would save the hospital about $92 in labor costs on average per case but keep in mind that the more patients the nurse has the higher probability of a fatal error occurring increases, causing about 1.4 additional lives per 1,000 admission (Rothberg et al., 2005).
During the first 42 days, infants in the breastfeeding group (n = 206) gained 2.74 g/d more weight compared with the formula-feeding group (n = 212). At age 4 months, the prevalence of high hemoglobin count (hemoglobin > 128 g/L) was significantly higher in the formula-feeding group compared with the breastfeeding group. At age 6 months, mean length and head circumference increases in the formula-feeding group were 8.19 and 6.26 mm larger than those in the breastfeeding group. The differences were trivial in adverse event and morbidity rates between breastfeeding and formula-feeding groups. The most important determinants of breastfeeding in the studied population are maternal concurrent conditions, maternal age and maternal education level.
Preterm births and low birth weight affect different states in the USA in a variety of ways. For example, research done in 2004 proved that preterm births are common among non-Hispanic African Americans women at 17.8 percent and least among the Asians and the Pacific Islanders women at 11.5 percent. The rate of low birthweight among non-Hispanic African Americans are also considerably high compared to the non-Hispanic white. Low birth weight among children brings creates a lot of problems. Children born with this condition require regular medication which is costly (Tambyraja & Mongelli, 2003).
Breast feeding and recurrent pneumonia In developing countries, the incidence and mortality rate of childhood pneumonia are 10 times higher than in developed countries.  Malnutrition is thought to be the underlying cause of approximately half of the fatal acute lower respiratory tract infections. Nutritional determinants of the global acute lower respiratory infection disease burden in children less than 5 years old is a lack of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months. [6,7] Hence in our study we will investigate if there’s any relevant correlation between breast feeding in patients with recurrent
In a recent article, Virginia 's state senator, Mark Obenshain noted that the recidivism and crime rates have dropped since parole abolition. He also mentioned that Virginia 's crime rate dropped 47.4 percent in 2013, making them the state with the third lowest crime rate. This was a significant improvement from being the state that had the eighth lowest crime rate in 2004. In an article released by The Sentencing Project in 2014, it discussed three states that had their crime rates decline faster than the national average. These states were New York, California, and New Jersey.
INTRODUCTION Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage is the main type of cerebral hemorrhage, the second most common cause of stroke after the ischemic stroke (1). Its incidence increases with age, with people over 85 years having up to 10 times the risk of having a brain hemorrhage compared to those between 45 and 54 years (2). With increasing of life expectancy, an increase in the incidence of stroke is likely to occur, particularly in developing countries such as those from Latin America (3,4). Although the incidence of stroke in developed countries has reduced by 42% over the past four decades, this reduction is most likely due to decrease in the incidence of the ischemic form (1), so that a recent meta-analysis failed to demonstrate changes in the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage between 1980 and 2006 (5). The overall incidence of cerebral hemorrhage in this study was 24.6 per 100,000 people per year (19.7-30.7, 95% CI), but data from Latin America were limited.
What is a teen pregnancy? Teen pregnancy is any female under the age of 20 years that are or get pregnant. Teen pregnancy has decreased in over the past 20 years. The teen birth rates vary in different areas such as age, ethnic groups and region of the country. “The U.S. teen birth rate is higher than that of many other developed countries, including Canada and the United Kingdom.” Birth rates are higher in Hispanic and African Americans.