Starting back in the 1700s in America, the juvenile justice system was punitive and unjust. Children as young as 8 were treated as adults and sent to do hard labor. In contrast, from the 1800s to the 1950s, social reformers were more focused on teen’s rehabilitation. Then in the 1980s and 1990s, there was yet another shift in thinking. During those decades, the number of teens who committed terrible crimes has increased a lot.Therefore
About eighteen percent of youth referred to the juvenile court are held in detention, awaiting the outcome of their cases. Juveniles charged with drug or personal crimes are mostly likely to be charged With public order and property crimes less likely to get detention. Just as the use of detention has dramatically increased over time, informal adjustment of cases has declined over time, and formal hearings now account for the process in more than half of all juvenile cases. These two trends show the increasing formality of juvenile justice system in response. In cases where a petition has been filed, youth progress to the adjudicatory stage(equivalent to the criminal trial).If a youth is found guilty or plead guilty , he or she is adjudicated to felonious, or adjudication may be withheld contingent upon the youth completion of some program or sanction.
LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transsexual) youth homelessness makes up only 5 to 7 percent of the general youth population, yet up to 40 percent of youth experiencing homelessness. Many LGBTQ youth face harassment, victimization, violence, social stigma, rejection, and discrimination in their families, schools, employment, and social settings. LGBTQ identified youth ages 13 to 17, provides important information regarding how LGBTQ young people experience life in their communities. Nearly half of LGBTQ youth (47 percent) surveyed they do not “fit in” in their community, while only 16 percent of non LGBTQ youth reported feeling that way. 63 percent stated that they will need to move to another part of the country in order to feel accepted.
A young person is a person over the age of fourteen but under the age of eighteen. The juvenile justice system covers both children and young persons. The adult justice system is more server in punishment than the juvenile justice system. The adult justice system punishes most offenders by incarnation. This takes away many of their rights for example there right of freedom and liberty.
There is a disproportionate number of minority youth represented in the juvenile justice system in the United States. Nearly 20,000 youth reside within 942 juvenile detention facilities (Wagner & Rabuy, 2016) and minority youth represent 63% of all youth incarcerated (Baron, 2012). Although a high percentage of minority youth are incarcerated, research hasn’t considered the perception of law enforcement by minority male youth. The purpose of this study is to explore male minority youth perception of Law enforcement. The study will explore the factors that contribute to male minority youth perceptions of law enforcement.
A program’s considered ineffective if it does not have a positive impact on a juvenile’s recidivism rate. Studies have shown that juveniles that attend ineffective programs have higher rates of going back to the prison system. Boot camps, intensive parole and probation supervision programs have a negative impact on juveniles and no reduction in recidivism rates. Programs such as deterrence, scared straight, and teaching the juvenile discipline actually have an increase in recidivism (Wilson, 2011, p. 106). Lipsey (2009) notes that discipline interventions had the largest negative effects on recidivism with an increase of 8%, with deterrence interventions, increasing recidivism by 2% (Bostic, 2014).
According to statistics, approximately two million juveniles under the age of 18 in the United States are arrested each year. Over 600,000 of them are placed in detention centers annually and approximately 95,000 reside in secure juvenile correctional settings on any given day. Further numbers suggest that the United States leads all industrialized nations worldwide in juvenile incarcerations. With criminal records also come detrimental consequences including: difficulty of finding employment, loss of public housing, immigration concerns, increased drop-out rates and the potential of recidivism. Research on the development of the juvenile brain and the negative consequences that come with focusing solely on commitment into a facility make
“New Orleans prosecutors are seeking life without parole [for juvenile offenders] in half of all cases; in West Baton Rouge Parish, 100 percent,” (“Justice for the Youngest Inmates”). Whenever a minor is found guilty of committing a crime, he or she must go through the processes of the juvenile justice system. There has been much controversy over how young criminals should be punished and corrected for breaking the law. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rectify the mistakes that youths have committed in order to produce functional, well-mannered members of society. However, juveniles are often treated poorly after being tried and come out of the detention facilities in a worse condition than when they entered.
While examining the rates of the victims two interesting factors stood out, the age of the victim and the relationship to the offender. Age groups of the victims were broken down like this, children in middle childhood ranged between the ages of 6 – 11, teenagers ranged between 12 – 17, leaving young children to be 5 or younger (Filkelhor & Ormrod, 2001). The teenage offender has the higher rate of victimization following a pattern much like adult victims, with homicides mostly involving male victims and male offenders. Compared to the other two age categories teenagers had the highest percent of not knowing the offender at nine percent, children under the age of 12 were at 3 percent (Filkelhor & Ormrod, 2001). Children that fall in the middle
In the juvenile system, black children are up to 18 times as likely to be sentenced as adults than white children, and African American youth that is accused of felonies are inclined to be viewed as more at fault for their crimes than are white youth. Research that was constructed by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency and the Center for Children’s Law and Policy suggested that minority youth are presented with harsher treatment than their white peers through almost every stage of the juvenile justice process. The process is already the punishment, but being a minority can make it worse. Minority juveniles are sentenced for longer periods and are less likely to receive alternative sentences or probation compared to white juveniles (Armour & Hammond, 2009,
2. Latino people often have high arrest rates.This is an issue because Latinos account for an excessive amount of all felony and misdemeanor arrests. To explain, Latinos are much more likely than White Americans to get arrested.Latinos account for almost half (46 percent) of all documented gang members in the United States.The issue here is that despite the high numbers of documented Latino gang members, only 3 percent of young Latinos aged sixteen to twenty-five report that they are now or have ever been in a gang.
The way African Americans are treated inside of jail and outside is actually disturbing. The United States is home to 5% of the world’s population, but 25% of the world’s prisoners. To think about how big this number is disturbing and numbers keep increasing. The United States prison population in 1970 was just above 327,000, and now the current prison population is just over 2 million. On the one hand I feel American Americans deserve some of the punishment that they get, but on the other I wonder why they are treated the way they are.