The relationships shape a person’s behavior and seeks to identify those features of a person’s personality and of the environment that keeps a person from committing a crime (Schmalleger, 2012). Social control theory predicts that when social constrains on antisocial behavior are weakened or are absent, delinquent behavior will happen. Social control asks why people obey rules instead of breaking them. Social control does not stress causative factors in criminal behavior (Schmalleger, 2012). Social control theory tries to find and identify features of personality and the environment that keep people from committing crimes.
Juvenile delinquency occurs all around the world. In Turkey, experts agree individual characteristic, family's socioeconomic status, and peer group are contributing factors to juvenile delinquency. Studies show media and games may have indirect or direct relationship with delinquency. Educational and rehabilitative programs in Turkey focus on give young offenders opportunity to develop academically and individually. For example, the program's mission is to prepare convicts for life after being discharge to enable to develop better personalities, strengthen their education and gain new skills.
Social Learning Theory John Riley UMUC Social Learning Theory on Gender Development Explanation The Social Learning Theory (SLT) is most frequently related with Albert Bandura’s works. Bandura was a professor at Stanford who saw boundaries in the learning theory of behaviorism. He incorporated philosophies of the cognitive and behavioral learning theories (Grusec, 1992) as well as created the Social Learning Theory. SLT suggests that gender identity and role are sets of behaviors obtained through observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. He created case studies involving individuals, children in particular, who observed the environment around them.
His theory seeks what has always been present in crime and what has not or better yet what mechanism or experiences correlate to the crimes committed. Sutherland proceeded to look at a singular force that made people commit crimes. Whether it’s their group, society or history and how this
This theory was based off Sutherland’s differential association theory, which had nine propositions outlining the process by which individuals acquire attitudes favorable to criminal or delinquent behavior with the basic idea that people tend to associate with others in which they come into contact. However, social learning theory puts more of an emphasis on definitions and applied the idea of operant conditioning by using positive and negative reinforcement. Thus, the theory assumes people are blank slates; people are not entirely good or entirely bad. They are either neutral or fall somewhere on the spectrum between good and bad. This theory also assumes that people are then molded into a criminal or a non-criminal since people end up in one group or the other based on people learning through
The social learning theory of criminology says that individuals learn from the community around them. This happens in two ways by differential association and differential reinforcement. Differential association is the theory that individuals learn values and behaviors related with crime. Differential reinforcement is the fact that rewards and disciplines shape behavior. High crime rates are an continuous problem in our inner cities, however the cause and reasoning behind crime has yet to be totally recognized.
The first of these four social bonds is attachment; the degree to which we care about the feelings of others and the psychological affection we have towards them. The most important of these Hirschi found, were parents and educational institutions, for an individual to form a strong attachment with each of these would increase their level of social control. We can see this is evident with the likes of psychopaths or those with anti-social personality disorders, these people are
8.Criminological theories 8.1.Social Control Theory In 1969 Hirschi developed a theory which could possibly explain why individuals who abide by the rules and values of society as well as maintain a connection with aspects such as family and school are less likely to engage in deviant activities (Walklate, 2011:85). According to Walklate (2011:85) the theory of social control includes four elements which could either strengthen or weaken social relationships which could lead to the causation or prevention deviant behaviour. Hirschi (2011:16-26) states that these elements include attachment, commitment, involvement as well as belief. Attachment refers to the interpersonal relationships as well as cultural and social norms of an individual.
The law defines a juvenile delinquent as a child or young person who has violated the " children and young persons law " or the criminal code. Juvenile: This refers to a person who has attained the age of 14 but is under 17 years. That is a young person who is not yet an adult (Oxford English Dictionary). Delinquent: It is a person who deviates from or violated the stipulated law that guides code of conduct of a particular country or society. The Nigerian constitution of 1979 defines juvenile delinquency as “a crime committed by a young person under the age of 18 years as a result of trying to comply with the wishes of his peers or to escape from parental pressure or certain emotional stimulation’.