It through other studies that we have been able to identify young children and elderly people to be more susceptible to the effects of misinformation. The misinformation effect belongs in the system variables category because it can be caused by law enforcement and lawyers who are information
Literature Review: The Misinformation Effect and the Type of Misinformation: Objects and the Temporal Structure of an Episode Aamisha Kini Westhill High School Yuhwa Han. (2017). The Misinformation Effect and the Type of Misinformation: Objects and the Temporal Structure of an Episode. The American Journal of Psychology, 130(4), 467-476. doi:10.5406/amerjpsyc.130.4.0467 In the article, it explains the misinformation effect and suggests that there is a relationship between the effect and temporal misinformation. False memories are more likely to be formed when misleading information is provided.
Objective The current project sets out to investigate the effects of chronotype on eyewitness testimony. In light of the foregoing research on impaired cognitive functioning under conditions of chronotype asynchrony, we expect decreased quantity and accuracy in eyewitness reports and lower identification accuracy rates for witnesses who make lineup identification outside their optimal time than those who make lineup identifications at their optimal time.
The effect of the message increases and it becomes more credible when a source is added. This technique is called “Propaganda device of testimonial”. Researchers found out that high credible sources cause attitude change more than low credible sources. But after month, the number of opinion changed for high credible sources is equal to those of low credible sources. When people are addressed to low credible sources, more opinion change occurs after one month than immediately after being addressed and this is called a sleeper effect.
A humans memory contains all that they have learnt and all they have experienced. Memories allow moments of today and yesterday last tomorrow and forever. It may seem that memories are a reliable source of information for a large majority of individuals but what would they think if their memories were actually wrong? To realize the memories that have been held in their minds for so long are inaccurate would cause great confusion and denial, which is the exact effect it has on them. Several people truly believe the reason why such a significant amount of others along with themselves have false memories is The Mandela Effect.
Though it doesn’t work like a camera as people construct and store information in a manner that makes it understanding to them. People do this to information by trying to put it in our schemas. Schemas can also question the reliability of eyewitness testimony, as they can cause distortion to memory or unconsciously modify information in order to relate with our current knowledge/ schemas. This can be seen in Bartlett’s study, where participants heard a story and had to recall and tell to another person, like “Chinese Whispers”. Each participant recalled the story in their individual interpretation such as; the passages became shorter, ideas and details of the story were modified.
It can be seen as one of the first aspects in this transformation since it happens during the encoding of the memory (Marsh, 2009). If the viewing conditions during encoding are not accurate, then naturally the memory will not be remembered well either. Therefore, elevated mood, darkness, and bad eye-sight are all contributing to the inaccurate observation of an event (Marsh, 2009). One example of this is flashbulb memories. These are memories that are encoded during a strong emotional response to a shocking event, and the common myth is that these memories would be encoded more accurately (French, 2003).
And yet, the science and reason that brought us this invention are not enough to force humanity to accept it in all facets of life. Something potentially responsible for this phenomenon is the Backfire Effect. David McRaney describes the Backfire Effect with great accuracy in his article “The Backfire Effect”: “coming or going, you stick to your beliefs instead of questioning them. When someone tries to correct you, tries to dilute your misconceptions, it backfires and strengthens them instead” (1). This unbreakable resolve for maintaining beliefs in contradiction to logic prevents us from seeing truth effectively.
As their message spreads across the population, this induces fear and confusion into the general mass. This wildfire is further fueled by influential celebrities such as Jenny McCarthy and Donald Trump, that garner their mass followers to also adopt their beliefs. As more people are fed misinformation, the more reluctant the population will be on getting vaccinated. Consequently, as less people vaccinate, the more vulnerable the population becomes. This is evident with the recent measles outbreaks.
"Emotional and dramatic fake news items will attract more attention, pretty much like real news of that sort. Binder (2018). According to Francisco Perez-Reche (2017) from Aberdeen University, who led a study on a mathematical model for viral content, sensational news on social media behaves in a manner similar to a virus causing an epidemic. "We often witness social phenomena that become accepted by many people overnight, especially now in the age of social media. ''This is especially relevant to social contexts in which individuals initially hesitate to join a collective movement, for example, a strike because they fear becoming part of a minority that could be punished.