Mitosis, Meiosis And Meiosis

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Cell division and reproduction is vital for life. Without cell division, all living organisms would be incapable of reproducing or healing themselves. There are mainly two different types of cellular division: mitosis and meiosis. These processes are crucial to most organisms, and have many different functions. Mitosis allow organisms to grow and to replenish cells. Meanwhile, meiosis creates cells that allow organisms to reproduce sexually. Both mitosis and meiosis have various functions and phases which have similarities and differences. Mitosis is the process by which cells reproduce and divide asexually. This process is used for repairing cells or growing. For example, a plant grows through this type of cell division, and when wounded,…show more content…
Meiosis usually creates gametes that allow for sexual reproduction, such as sperm and egg. There are two main stages of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. For each of these stages, there are four main phases, which are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During early prophase I, the nuclear membrane dissolves. In late prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair and become a tetrad. Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that are very similar. One comes from a mother, and one from a father. For homologous chromosomes, they have the same gene, but they can have different alleles, which means it can have an alternative form of a gene, that may create a different trait. In metaphase I, spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes. This leads to anaphase I, when the homologous chromosomes are separated. Then in telophase I, the cell reforms two nuclear membranes and the cells split. The result is two haploid daughter cells, since they only contain half of the chromosomes of the original diploid cell. The two daughter cells then undergo an almost identical process as mitosis in meiosis II. It undergoes prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II. Each of these phases are essentially identical to the mitosis phases. This produces 4 haploid daughter cells that can then be used in sexual…show more content…
During metaphase, the replicated chromosomes line up and attach to spindle fibers. However, in metaphase I in meiosis I, homologous pairs line up, form tetrads, and attach to spindle fibers, whereas in mitosis, the spindle fibers attach to replicated chromosomes. In addition, the process of mitosis only occurs once, but in meiosis there are two processes, meiosis I and meiosis II. The result of mitosis is two diploid daughter cells. However, the result of meiosis is 4 haploid daughter cells, since the processes in meiosis occurs twice. Meiosis I produces two haploid daughter cells. In meiosis II, these two cells divide to form four haploid daughter cells. Furthermore, the daughter cells in mitosis are identical to the daughter cells. However, in meiosis, the 4 daughter cells may have some genetic variation. This is due to meiosis starting with homologous pairs instead of replicated chromosomes. The functions of mitosis and meiosis are also different. Mitosis is used for repairing cells. For example, if an animal’s skin was scraped, mitosis would occur in the skin cells to allow them to replace the cells. Mitosis is also used when growing. When a plant grows, its cells are dividing by mitosis. On the contrary, meiosis produces cells for sexual reproductions. Meiosis produces gametes, such as sperms and eggs that are then used in sexual

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