After researching, elements from the studies mentioned above were used. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) study was modified. Instead of memorizing, words were presented to participants in the same presentation rate, as Murdock and Bennett (1962). Also, the words participants needed to memorize are all 1-syallable, in order to control their level of recency effect and make sure those words will be easily remembered. The hypothesis will be one-tailed that can lead us to compare the level of recency effect with or without the distraction
The objectives of this study are to find the degree to which the used and the acceptable memory model among the student-teachers, equipped students with mnemonic and figure out the popularly used of mnemonics technique for learning psychology, and also measure student-teachers` attitude toward using mnemonics and the used in teaching lesson. 40 B.Ed. students who had selected English as medium of instruction were taught with cognitive development theory, learning theory and intelligent theory by using memory model of teaching. Self-constructed tools were used to measure students` attitude toward the memory model of teaching and mnemonics. This research showed a positive result where 100% of the students showed positive attitude towards the mnemonics technique and 95% of students agree mnemonic is interesting and useful in the learning process (Maheswari, 2013).
There are evidence that the effect of reading on memory is also significant for example, reading, phonics, spelling and writing may improve phonological awareness for sounds in words and more accurate representations in the phonological loop ; knowledge and storage of printed words may aide storage and retrieval of spoken words ; supported reading and reading aloud may help memory for longer sequences of information ; and finally speech clarity is better when reading aloud – may help storage of phonological patterns for words in LTM (e.g., Service et al. 2002) . On the other hand, activation of processing during reading is also a good means to improve reading comprehension and the organization of new information in a way optimal to reading. It is very important to trigger the involvement of the LTM during a reading event .However, many studies have revealed uncertainties about the probabilities to train and revive PM (e.g., Maridaki-Kassotaki 2002). The performance of memory is conceptual and strongly related to handling of activity.
Speed drawing and kinesics as strategies in improving vocabulary retention are characterized by direct participation of learners. These does not only involve thinking skills but also motor skills. These vocabulary strategies can be traced in the VLS of
For instance, German Katze or Russian kot, with the familiar first language word, cat. Moreover, learners may use accent marks, rhymes or phonetic spelling to remember new target language words. Keyword The keyword technique is the result of a combination of two aural imagery and visual imagery. The main theory of this technique is that remembering a word in target language can be easier by using visual and auditory links together and be tied strongly to existing schemata. For instance, to learn a new French word potage (soup), the English speaker merges it with a pot and then mentally imagines a pot full of
Not using, not rehearsing certain information may lead to the deterioration of the physical trace in the nervous system (Passer, et al., 2009). The neural networks models relate directly to this theory, as they propose that memory hinges on connections between neurons, which form 'nodes', each node corresponding to a particular memory (Passer, et al., 2009). If those connections are not used, they fade. The effect is forgetting. However, there are objections to this theory.
Effective instructional methods that can support limited short term storage and limited working memory processes are being used in classroom to maximise the learning (Dehn, 2008). Thus, this essay will probe on the extent of teachers considering the limited processing capacity of students’ working memory in Malaysian English language classroom using multiple modality teaching aids, part whole approach and collaborative learning. Multiple
There two kind of memory technique in psychology of memory. Rote memory technique and Eidetic memory technique. As mentioned in discussion that eidetic memorization is more effective technique than rote memorization technique. Someone using eidetic memorization can recall easily what have been memorized by using the inference of the visual (image) had in mind whereby someone using rote memorization technic can easily forget information because there are no things to refer the information
Some involve global planning for learning or studying, some are mnemonic devices, some resemble problem-solving heuristics, some are mapping and structuring tactics that use key words or other cues detected in reading or listening, and some involve the metacognitive processes of comprehension monitoring or hypothesis generating and testing while learning. A particularly important general distinction concerns whether these individual strategies lead to deep (versus surface) approaches to instruction
Among the empirical studies there is obvious promotion of the value of structured language teaching for children with dyslexia where all senses are implicated (Bryson, 2013). The primary focus on multisensory teaching was 75 years ago, when specialists in the field of SEN, underlined the significance of multisensory methods and proposed their use. Nowadays, there is a growing body of evidence supporting multisensory teaching, but its efficacy has yet to be given scientific scrutiny (Dyslexia help, online). The children have the benefit of learning by using simultaneously many paths; visual, auditory and kinesthetic-tactile and articulator-motor components to improve memory and learning. Multisensory approach is a structured, sequential, efficient and logical technique, highly successful in retraining brain pathways for reading that seems to help students of all ages, skills and learning problems (International Dyslexia Association, 2000) .