“The Apology of Socrates” was written to keep the trial against Socrates alive for centuries to read and study the justice system of Athens. Plato believes that his teacher, Socrates, was trialed because he was “evil” and needed to be killed from society. The “apology” Socrates presents himself as respected and mistreated due to the emotions of the Athenian
It should serve as a foundation for public justification among people who have differing notions of the good. The roots to this way of thinking lay in the concept of fairness. Rawls identifies justice with fairness however he does not imply that the notions of justice and fairness are the same. He assumes that the decisions made under the veil of ignorance are supposedly equal in every aspect ergo they are to result in fair and therefore just conclusions. The extent of fairness in this method is however, rather questionable and the same can be said for Rawls’s overall understanding of fairness, especially when looking at practicalities, because Rawls’s theory is highly idealistic and his methodology allegedly universal.
based on this there exist various philosophies related to Utilitarianism, Justice and Rights which explain how individual create ethical standards. The philosophies divides assumptions of ethics into two types- teleological and deontological approaches. This approaches differ in terms of judging ethical behavior. Teleological philosophies deals with moral worth of behavior determined by the consequences of the behavior. Utilitarianism come under teleological philosophy which connects to morality based on consequences and not on motives or intensions.
The person wants the state’s traditions to stay stagnant as it will lead to individuals with initiative to come out on top. The source, regarding the issue of the status quo in society, is a belief that connects to conservatism. Classical Liberalism is rooted in liberalism, meaning that the basic principles of democracy are behind their ideas in benefitting society. The intentions of conservatives are to provide opportunities through a private enterprise economy. The system highly encourages the ideals of individualism.
The aim of the theory is to create a democratically homogeneous world with the assumption that such a world will lead to a lasting universal peace and economic prosperity. The underlying arguments of the theory are based on empirical research and statistical data on the behavior of democratic regimes throughout history. This theory is heavily based on the tenets of the liberal school of thought. Liberals have an ameliorative view of progress in human affairs and strongly believe that a freer, more ordered and less violet world is actually possible. International liberalism affirms a cluster of values including individual freedom, political equality, popular sovereignty, constitutional government, private property, and unrestricted commerce.
It is set outside of a courtroom in Athens and features Socrates and Euthyphro (who is there to try to prosecute his father). They start discussing the entire meaning and definition of holiness, or piety for that matter because Euthyphro claims to know everything about holiness and piety. One example of piety that Euthyphro explains is prosecuting someone who has done wrong, for example his father who is being accused of murdering
THE PHILOSOPHY OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE SYSTEM Ashish Kumar Distributive Justice or Economic Justice or the Fair Share principle, as the name suggests, is basically concerned with the social and economic welfare of the citizens. It says that an equal society is that where there is a fair allocation of the material goods and services between all the sections of the society. John Rawls, the main theorist of Distributive Justice gives two basic principles of Fairness or Fair Share related to Distributive Justice. The Constitution of India, through Article 14, 15, 16, 38, 39, 39(A) enforces the principle of distributive justice. Distributive justice exists in a society where there exists no inequality, so the Indian constitution through these articles tries to remove the prevailing inequalities in the society.
The second, Socrates asks Euthyphro, have you known what a piety is if your attitude is confident that you indict your father for a crime. (Plato (1997), p.77.). Socrates tries to look for one standard definition of piety. Let, have a look at what piety means to Euthyphro. He comes up with the several suggestions about piety: “to prosecute a wrongdoer is pious and not to prosecute is impious”; “what all the gods hate is impious, and what they all love is pious”; “where there is piety there is also justice” (Plato (1997), p.88.).
(Hunter, 2001, p.306) There is no exception for rational individuals in the world to escape from the law of categorical imperative. The presentation of categorical imperative is somehow like a test of morality (Hunter, 2001, p.306), rather than just a moral concept. Moral maxim is of vital necessity in the determination of morality for an action. From Kant’s view, an action can be treated as moral when it is motivated by one’s maxim, while it also suits the universal law. (Hunter, 2001, p.306) Therefore, it can be concluded that moral maxim is the standard of deciding whether an action is moral or not.
I will start my research by giving a short background on John Rawls’ Theory of Justice. Rawls begins his theory with the idea of justice as fairness. He identifies the basic structure of society as the primary subject of justice and identifies justice as the first virtue of social institutions. Justice as fairness aims to describe a just arrangement of the major political and social institutions of a liberal society: the political constitution, the legal system, the economy, the family, and so on. He considers justice a matter of the organization and internal divisions of a society.