Optical multiplexing allows for sending multiple signals through a single medium as well as for bidirectional use of that medium. Device used for this purpose is called multiplexer. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Based on Frequency-Division Multiplexing of radio waves. Multiplexers are also called Data Selectors. For example, telecommunication signals, Telephone signals etc.
In this chapter gives overview of wireless sensor network . It then focuses on Qos requirements and challenges that must be addressed during the development of routing protocol for provisioning of QoS. 1.1 Wireless sensor network A wireless sensor network are often outlined as a network of devices, denoted as nodes, which may sense the setting and communicate the data gathered from the monitored field in wireless way. The information is forwarded, presumably via multiple hops, to a sink (sometimes denoted as controller or monitor) which will use it domestically or is connected to different networks through a entry. The nodes are often stationary or moving.
4.6. Decentralized system architecture In this control system, sub-stations are work separately and all are connect to each other through grid system. If any sub-system's control system is shuts so in that case that sub-system area will effected. In addition, no need to shut whole system. In addition, if the fault is big so in that case that area power supply will start through another sub-station via grid system.
Passive Components Definition: A passive component is an electrical device that does not require energy to operate, except the alternating current (AC)/direct current (DC) circuit that passive component is connected to. A passive component is not able to increase power up and amplifying signal. Passive Components: Passive component would be: 1. Inductor 2. Resistor 3.
In direct transfer, contribution transfer takes place between two adjacent nodes. Without any precondition a node may provides several service units to other nodes. In indirect transfer there is only one transfer mode: transaction. In this contribution transfer takes place between two non-adjacent
OSI model follows horizontal |approach while TCP/IP model follows vertical approach. 4. OSI model has a separate presentation layer while TCP/IP |does not have a separate presentation layer 5. OSI is a general model where it can be use in other application while TCP/IP model cannot be used in any other application. 6.
But, the performance degrades due to the errors in path loss estimates. In CLPC, the mobile station can readjust its transmission power after reading the message by the base station regarding decreasing and increasing the transmission power. In LTE, the power control mechanism has a closed loop operation around a open loop point of operation . A brief comparison on open loop and closed loop power control [23, 25] concludes that OLPC has high throughput in the inner parts of the cell and poor performance at the cell edges. The application CLPC increases the performance at the
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 What is MANET? The term MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) refers to a multi hop packet based wireless network consists set of mobile nodes used to transfer the related information and move without using any system structure. It is able to change the networks and doesn’t need any structure to maintain the data. It uses wireless connections to connect to various networks because they are mobile. The connections may be done through Wi-Fi connection, or another medium, such as a cellular or satellite transmission.
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