In countries where this political issue was not dealt with early on especially during transition, the political leaders continued to have advantage over other interest groups. In the absence of democracy, the political agenda is driven by personal interests of political leaders making it difficult to implement liberalization policies that are aimed at de-monopolizing the economy and opening it up to competition. (Grosjean and Senik 24) Also argues that market liberalization does not reinforce democratic values. The richer, better educated, younger, self-employed citizens, farmers and farm workers are more supportive of democracy contrary to the poor, those who have not completed compulsory education and women. The poor, the uneducated and the women are less supportive of democracy and more likely to declare that the political system does not matter for them.
Obviously the electoral systems adopted in many former colonies were not always appropriate to meet the needs of the particular country, as the colonial power was usually very different socially and culturally from the society colonized (European Parliament, 2011). This highlights the main objective of SMP. Plurality elections serve the purpose of creating a “manufactured majority”. As one can imagine, this means that the number of seats for the leading party is artificially boosted while simultaneously penalizing minor parties. The subsequent “winner-take-all” system enhances the leading party’s legislative base, thus focusing on effective governance as opposed to representation of the general public (Norris,
This economy is extremely regulated, supervised and censorship plays a big part. Even though it is evident that some government intervention is beneficial, from a lot of research and practical application, this type of extreme intervention may not be the most suitable, as we can see in North Korea, which faces enduring economic problems. A more practical version of government involvement in the economy would be a mixed economy, perhaps a welfare state, to ensure equal distribution of wealth and resources. An example of this would-be Ireland or the UK. To conclude, there is very few states in the world who have managed to run a government that has not needed to intervene in the economy.
Distributional concerns could be taken care of in the political process; more moderate advocates of Washington consensus policies deny the charge. The policies pursued by the international financial institutions which came to be called the Washington consensus policies or neo liberalism entailed a much more circumscribed role for the state than were embraced by most of the East Asian countries, a set of policies which came to be called the development state. Some economists have argued that free trade is not necessarily the best option for developing economies. It can cause the economies to primarily only produce low income growth and their primary products. If the countries promotes new industries, it may require both selective tariffs on cheap imports and as well as government
Political party financing and election campaigns can promote corruption. Corruption can be used to reward supporters, buy opponents, and provide support to major groups of voters. Political institutions are particularly susceptible to corruption. Most industrial countries have a foundation of democratic values, transparent processes established, active and independent media. These traditions limit corruption, while in developing countries government institutions are weaker, civil society is less engaged and political processes are less transparent.
The police, who had formerly attracted members with the allure of getting away with corruption and individual gain, enforced their new anti-corruption law by giving the police who did want to adjust to a new political environment a second chance. It is said by some experts that, “Hong Kong became an international finance hub – receiving more than $HK 82 billion in overseas investment since 2000 - because of the commission’s work”(Lam). So, what can China learn from this? On the flip side, how will an infiltrating China affect the political culture of Hong Kong in the future?
In contrast, Legrain has the opposite opinion to the transnational corporation. In chapter 5, he states that use a huge company to compare with a country is unreasonable. Companies are not powerful as a country. I agree with Legrain’s opinion, companies will try their best to attract consumers, but they can not force them to purchase their products. But the country can make a law to manage those companies and people, like tariffs.
The existence of political and economic unions such as the European Union has diminished the power of the countries within these unions, as the EU can set policies on a broad range of areas, for example banning imports of ivory or introducing safety regulations on imported electronic goods. However, this impact is somewhat mitigated by the fact that these unions rarely have absolute power over countries within them and the individual nations still determine a significant amount of policies themselves without the intervention of the European Union. Furthermore, as evidenced by the recent “Brexit” of the United Kingdom, membership of these unions is not always absolute and the countries in them can elect to leave if they wish, so the power of the union is therefore not absolute. Increased globalisation has also culminated in a world where there are very few command economies left – outside of a few countries which operate at near-command economies such as Cuba or Venezuela, most countries are mixed economies where there is a level of government intervention in economies but consumers can still buy and sell most goods with a degree of freedom. Mixed economies naturally have less political power over the consumption habits of the citizens living within these economies than mixed economies, as consumers now attempt to consume to maximise their utility rather than relying on a central planner to
Devolution changes the pattern of who benefits from government programs the most. Both of these make changes to bureaucracies but devolution has a higher impact on citizens. Can Bureaucracy Be Controlled? Explain how Jimmy Carter was the president who was the most involved in administrative reform and
when choosing they look not just to the person but to the group , and even that the head of the state is lack of power but still the prime minster less important than him . the ability to judge and change the government give the parliamentary the chance to change it when it's not doing its job . The democracy in letting the people choose the president which let them feel that they have the choice . that the president have a stabled period of time in his position they can't change him till its finish unlike the other governmental positions under this system . the separation of the power , which give the president the ability to make a quick decisions .