Models are generalizations of processes, patterns and systems of human interactions and experience. Models can be seen and used in our everyday life. They make life easier in a way – they help us in understanding concepts that can be related to all the parts in our lives. The good thing with models is that they can provide a very clear explanation of a certain concept, because they leave out the things that might make the explanation more complex. This gives us general rules that are widely used. In this essay, models from the point of view of human sciences will be considered. Human sciences consider psychology, economics, human geography, anthropology, sociology and political science. What all of these have in common is that they all study …show more content…
Sigmund Freud. He introduced the psychodynamic theory. It stated that human behavior is motivated by one’s aggressive and sexual drives and that childhood experiences form our personality. The clear weakness in this theory, however, is the fact that it lacks any scientific credibility. You cannot test one’s mind processes with the scientific method. You also cannot generalize the results Freud got from the experiences he made with individuals to a large number of people. This is one reason of why the use of models in human sciences can be extremely difficult and untrustworthy and therefore can hinder the gaining of knowledge. In response to the counter claim, even though the results from Freud’s experiments cannot be fully generalized, the model can still be useful. Still nowadays it’s used in patient analysis. Of course, as mentioned, one cannot be completely sure that this model offers a good framework for the treatment of patients, but like all models it offers an explanation to a difficult thing. The second knowledge question discussed is: “How have the models in economics helped in gaining knowledge and how reliable is the …show more content…
Also, when we are trying to gain knowledge, we can just simply accept the models as true, without questioning them and act among them. This applies to the economical models too. An example of this is one of the most important models in economics: the Keynesian model. Its main, most important point is that with its theoretical model it is possible to calculate the exact amount of either how much the taxes must be lowered or how much the government should increment their spending in order to achieve full employment in the country. The problem with this model is that it doesn’t take into account any other factors that can be the cause of unemployment. That proves that even those models that are valued a lot and considered to be almost certain can still be vague enough to not fully trust it. In response to the counter claim, as mentioned before, models are not supposed to be perfect. They can contain mistakes that can be fixed and polished over time as they are noticed. This is why also the Keynesian model shouldn’t be judged as being completely wrong right away, because just like a model is supposed to do, it helps us in understanding a difficult concept and presents it in a simplified form that everyone can
The public health model is more difficult to define than the other two models due to not everyone understands the concept of public health. The public health model is concerned with individuals’ who have problems but extends the concept of health care beyond just the normal medical treatment due to individuals problems may be linked to social issues as well (Woodside & McClam, 2015). The public health model looks at larger populations and not just individuals by actually collecting data and examining this data to determine the overall problem (Woodside & McClam, 2015). By collecting and examining this data the public health model is used to alleviate health problems that have consequences for society in general, like health insurance for
The model allows health care professionals to reflect on experiences and find ways to improve their outcomes of different events. It not only looks at the situation but allows you to explore your feelings at the time of the event, as well as at the end of the reflective process. The model gives health care an opportunity to review their actions and explore what could have been improved with regards to their experiences (De Oliveira and Tuohy,
What is a Mental Model? A mental model is an explanation of how something works. It is a concept, framework, or worldview that you carry around in your mind to help you interpret the world and understand the relationship between things. Mental models are deeply held beliefs about how the world works.
Greenberg (1986) believes Freud’s case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud’s aim was more to illustrate his theoretical points (p.240). In cases, Greenberg asserts that many of the presented cases would not even be considered acceptable examples of psychoanalysis and, in short, that virtually all of the cases studies had basic shortcomings (p.240). Furthermore, many other powerful criticisms about Freud inaccurate and subsequently flawed evidence have been published. These critics contend that Freud’s evidence is flawed due to the lack of an experiment, the lack of a control group, and the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p.54).
Psychoanalysis was first introduced by Sigmund Freud and is now known as classical psychoanalysis. The theory, as defined by Sigmund Freud, is the dynamic between underlying forces that determine behavior and personality. He stressed the importance of human sexuality, childhood experiences, and the unconscious processes. However, his theory was seen as misogynistic and narrow focused. Consequently, classical psychoanalysis was criticized and rejected by many scholars.
The Biopsychosocial Model The biopsychosocial model of health care allows medical practice to be understood completely in terms of biological, psychological and social factors. The model suggests that every illness can be explained and treated by an interaction between these three factors. The model was proposed by George L. Engel, the Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester, where he challenged the previously prevailing medical model, called the biomedical model, and argued for the introduction of a biopsychosocial model. The biomedical model had viewed illness purely from a pathophysiological perspective, suggesting that every disease could be explained from a biological standpoint.
Increasing savings or declining spending can lead to unemployment. Nowadays we witness the same circle since 2008 global crisis. Each crisis
Sigmund Freud- From a very young age Freud wanted to make a great discovery and become famous. One of his biggest discoveries was Psychoanalysis. Freud's clients were able to speak freely of their thoughts; this is where Freud gained a large portion of his understanding of personality. Freud believes there are three levels in one's mind connected to motivation: the unconscious, the conscious and the preconscious. The unconscious holds the reasons behind why we do things that we are unaware of while we are more aware of our conscious.
KEYNESIAN APPROACH TO CURRENT ACCOUNT The main root of this part is pioneered by John Keynes in 1930’s in efforts to comprehend the undergoing condition of great depression. From 1930’s on the time of depression there was no economic theory that could provide explanations for the severe worldwide economy collapse. John Keynes a British economist who became very famous after the establishment of his book called ‘The general theory of interest, economy and money’ in 1936, forefront a rebellion in economic thinking that reversed the dominant idea that free market would provide full employment (Keynes 1936). He further identifies that there is no balance mechanism to ensure free market result into full employment.
Behaviour is the way in which we act, speak and treat other people and our environment. Children and young people whose early social and emotional development is positive are more likely to make friends, settle well into school and understand how to behave appropriately in different situations. They have strong self- esteem and a sense of self- worth, but also have a feeling of empathy for others. They understand what the boundaries are, and why they are necessary. Behaviour has a significant impact on current and later success for children and young people, in terms of their social skill development, education and employment.
The topic of this assignment is to discuss and analyse what factors affect human behavior and in doing so how human behavior is shaped. But before discussing that, it is important to understand what human behavior is. To define it in a few sentences or words would not be sufficient as human behavior consists of many factors and therefore contributes majorly to who we are as a person. But to put it simply, it is defined as all actions and emotions that an individual portrays in response to the different kinds of stimuli they receive no matter whether these responses are conscious or subconscious and voluntary or involuntary (Merriam-webster.com, 2015).