Her births coincide at a time when European countries beset by civil war and the wars of religion between the Catholic with protestant. This is then born incidence of doctrines of the absolute monarchy in the system of Government. The monarchy system based on a belief that power of the King is both divine and sacred. In addition to this absolute monarchy is regarded as a form of Government in accordance with the law of nature which is rooted in the tradition of paternal authority, a copy of the Kingdom of God on Earth, as well as a reflection of power. Then the anti thesis of Locke's exist thought-provoking opposing Sir Robert Filmer who defended his thoughts about the absolute
His central argument there is that a particular norm of community has governed the intense violence of the war. This norm, which he calls ‘ontopology’, borrowing from Derrida, refers to the assumption that political community requires the perfect alignment of territory and identity, state and nation. The last one is a
During the Enlightenment, there were many uprisings, rebellions, and revolutions as people began to question divine right and reform their government. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “We owe to this period the basic model of government founded upon the consent of the governed; the articulation of the political ideals of freedom and equality and the theory of their institutional realization; the articulation of a list of basic individual human rights to be respected and realized by any legitimate political system; the articulation and promotion of toleration of religious diversity as a virtue to be respected in a well ordered society; the conception of the basic political powers as organized in a system of checks and balances; and other now-familiar features of western democracies.” Had it not been for the Enlightenment and its ideals, the U.S Constitution and America's government would not be the way it is
Weber 's analysis of modernity and rationalization significantly influenced the critical theory associated with the Frankfurt School. The starting point of Weber’s political analysis was the important distinction between power as authority and power as coercion. So according
Locke also argued that when the monarch becomes a tyrant, that constituted a violation of the social contract, which bestows life, liberty, and property as a natural right. He concluded that the people have a right to overthrow a tyrant. By placing life, liberty and property as the supreme value of law and authority, Locke formulated the basis of liberalism based on social contract theory. To Locke securing the most essential amenities of life — liberty and private property among them — required the formation of a "sovereign" authority with universal
In other words, a tyranny has been formed. Locke believes that the majority are meant to be the sovereign, thus, if the power shifts from the people, then they have the right to use force in order to gain back their rights. Therefore, we can conclude that the right of revolution refers to a situation in which citizens
In his medieval chronicle, Chronica Majora, Matthew Paris discusses the life and times of Frederik II. Frederik II, the Holy Roman Emperor, is often considered the first modern ruler due to some of his reforms. During his reign he continually fought with the church, particularly Pope Innocent IV. Although Frederik damaged the Church through manipulation of the papacy, particularly of Innocent IV, Matthew Paris was sympathetic to him for his academic and logical approach to tyrannical rule, while the pope was power-hungry in a less sophisticated way. The most damaging thing Frederik II did the to the church was his attempt at controlling the papacy.
With this as evidence, the system of exemplarity can then be extrapolated into a measure of the Roman population’s influence in comparison with the authoritative government that rules over it. Using this model, it is evident that the citizens of the Roman Republic enjoyed a certain importance in society because they retained the right to decide what historical events should become exempla. Contrastingly, the common people of Rome during the Augustan imperial period were subjected to a coercive loss of influence in both exemplarity and in political representation. Although Augustus’ execution of power through the Res Gestae was authoritarian in nature, it is important to note that the Romans were not entirely opposed to it.
(Hobbes, 1985, p.185) For classical realists, the characteristics of human nature were put into practice in international politics where every state is functions to garner safety and as there is no power to keep states moral, they indulge in competition which often results in “war of all against all”. (Hobbes, 1985, p.185b) This realist thinking was given perspective in a much more formalized manner by Morgenthau (2006) who outlined six principles of political realism by stating that realism held its foundations in human nature, thus further cementing Hobbes