These changes have contributed to the change of people’s view of the world and the way literature is written, marking the start of postmodern literature. In culture, the spread and commercialization of popular culture has lead to the aesthetic and artistic norms for interpreting art and literature, as well as their value, being reduced, causing the eradication of a former distinction between the “high” and “low” forms of art. In his article “Mapping the Postmodern” (1984), Andreas Huyssen argues that the relation between modernism and postmodernism is a shift of the way of thinking, which challenges “modernism's relentless hostility to mass culture” by postmodernism's integrations of pop and high art (16). He completes this thought by stating that this “new creative relationship between high art and certain forms of mass culture” is what marked the shift from “high modernism and the art and literature which followed it in the 1970s and 1980s both in Europe and the United States” (Huyssen 23). Similarly, in her A Poetics of Postmodernism (1988), Linda Hutcheon
Some artists duplicated beer bottles, soup cans, comic strips, road signs, and similar objects in paintings, collages, and sculptures. Others incorporated the objects themselves into their paintings or sculptures, sometimes in startlingly modified form. In using images that reflected the materialism and vulgarity of modern mass culture, they suggest the depersonalized processes of mass production, that is, to allow the viewer to respond directly to the object, rather than to the skill and personality of the artist. Pop Art investigates in areas of popular taste and kitsch previously considered outside the limits of fine art. It was rejecting the attributes associated with art as an
What is Post Modernism? Post Modernism was “any of a number of trends or movements in the arts and literature developing in the 1970s in reaction to or rejection of the dogma, principles, or practices of established modernism, especially a movement in architecture and the decorative arts running counter to the practice and influence of the International Style and encouraging the use of elements from historical vernacular styles and often playful illusion, decoration, and complexity” (http://www.dictionary.com) When it came to art, pop art was seen as the forefront of the movement, as this was established by Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol but other artists who explored post modernism include Jeff Koons who created sculptures of giant balloon
Eliot’s work also declared that the individual elements of the artist should be filtered out of their work, and the artist should only serve as a “medium” for transmitting the words (148). In today’s society, however, identity markers and individualism are at a peak, and the rise of technology no doubt exacerbates our obsession with crediting the individual for their work. In the case of Mar’s, the criticism is not focused on his work, but the man, Bruno Mars, his identity. In the discussion of “cultural appropriation” we place the individual on trial, but that barely addresses the larger issue: the societal privileging of the individual. French Philosopher Michel Foucault asserts in his essay “What is an Author?” that “The coming into being of the notion of the ‘author’ constitutes the privileged moment of individualization in the history of ideas (157).
This is an interesting argument when used in regards to the fashion industry. Vivienne Westwood is asking consumers to consider ethical consumption when fashion has detrimental effects on environmental issues and encourages superficial connections with expression and identity. ‘...dissent was presented as fashionable and dangerous, but not politically effective.’ This is also interesting when looking at Vivienne Westwood as a study as she is using her brand to push these views on to consumers, so they would feel a sense of involvement with little to no political engagement in the issues themselves. This is simply commodifying dissent. Consumers are literally buying in to anti-consumerism ideology and it is interwoven into the narrative of consumer culture.
Was the old world end? Writers reacted to this question by turning toward Modernist emotion. Modernist fiction spoke of the inner self and consciousness. Instead of progress, the Modernist writer saw a decline of civilization. Instead of new technology, the Modernist writer saw cold machinery and increased capitalism, which alienated the individual and led to loneliness.
Where the connection of the name 'pop' not only refers to popular culture, but in pop art as well. Tafoya states, “Pop was a term first applied to popular culture rather than to art, but it would be one of the goals of the Pop art movement to blur the boundaries between ‘high’ art and ‘low’ popular culture” (p. 1). Pop art is seen to be a consumerist cause, often referring to the “products of the mass media”, argued by Tafoya. Pop art used these popular culture elements in protest against the seriousness that surrounded the elitist art establishment. Does this support the notion that pop art was a major turning point in design?
Postmodernism, in its simplest form is what came after modernism. It was a movement, which began in America around the 1960s and then it spread to Britain and Europe and finally the rest of the world. It was a way of reacting against modernism ideas. The movement believed in challenging people, encouraging expression of art, colour and decoration in response to the ideals of modernists that was simplicity and formality, Advocated by artists such as le Cobusier and Walter Gropius. In this essay I will start by discussing what led to the beginning of the postmodernism movement and why.
In “The Decay of Lying,” Vivian would identify with this movement based on his opinions of modernism and logic. Vivian explains to Cyril that “as a method Realism is a complete failure, and the two things that every artist should avoid are modernity of form and modernity of subject matter.” Wilde is, of course, speaking his own opinion through Vivian and develops his ideas throughout the Socratic dialogue. This line spoken by Vivian underscores the contrast in subject matter “The Decay of Lying” to the social norms. The essay attacks the accepted intellectual ideas of the time and hints toward homosexuality (although the term was not yet
Pop Art can be defined as the rejection of abstraction and this in turn outlines the characteristics of most of the artworks produced under this category. Reproduction of the sign was one characteristic of this brand of art. This reproduction was used to show that we as consumers of “Pop Culture” live excessively whether it’s regarding consumption of products or how we blindly obsess over celebrities. “Unlike Dada, whose entirely negative aim was to subvert and undermine the values of a bourgeois establishment which they blamed for the carnage of World War I, Pop-art sought to reflect the social values and environment from which it sprang. Thus they focused on the preoccupations shared by most American consumers: food, cars and romance.