Catch-22 is an analogy of the ancient poem: The Gilgamesh Epic. Heller’s uses a transcendent framework to portray the individuation of a modern hero through his struggles with the mythic and archetypal forces of irrationalism as they are manifested in civilization (Woodson, 2001:3) In literature, writers occasionally refer to novels and poems of previous writers for inspiration. In the novel Catch 22 written by Joseph Heller, Heller uses the epic of Gilgamesh as a base for his novel. As proof, the similarities and differences in the plot, characters and themes will be discussed. Firstly, the archetypal plot of the two novels will be identified and discussed as well as the effect of using an archetypes in literature.
CHAPTER II Archetypal criticism The roots of archetypal criticism Archetypal criticism is a type of literary criticism that focuses on particular narrative patterns, archetypes, motifs, themes or characters that recur in a particular literary work or in literature in general. Archetypal criticism has its basis in the application of concepts developed in psychoanalysis and in mythology to the study of literature. The main tendency of this approach to criticism resembles to the early conception of form in Western thought. Collective unconscious lays beneath the personal conscious and personal unconscious. As Jung said, the collective unconscious is ‘‘a storehouse of knowledge, experiences, and images of the human race.
When reading a novel, readers do not often realize that many authors use the same types of characters and symbols. Applying a literary lens to a novels can help readers better understand why a novel was written. A literary theory is, “A term for analyzing, classifying, defining, interpreting, and evaluating literature” (Davidson). When observing a piece of literature with an Archetypal lens analysts can identify these patterns. According to Literary Devices, “In literature, an archetype is a typical character, an action, or a situation that seems to represent universal patterns of human nature” (literarydevices).
The use of figurative language by authors elevates their works, especially those of fiction, into an entirely different realm in which the reader becomes immersed in both the imagery and descriptions of the text. Of course, there are many ways in which writers can use figurative language such as similes, metaphors, and hyperboles to create an image for the reader or emphasize a point they are trying to make. Authors are also able to utilize figurative language beyond decorating their writing but to also add character development, communicate information about the text, and amplify suspense. To further illustrate the importance and the roles of figurative languages the following short stories including Edgar Allen Poe’s “Cask of Amontillado”,
This era is unusual due to it’s overlapping of both the Romantic and Realism Era. Due to its coexistence in two eras, this division serves as a platform for authors to attempt to establish a new literary culture aside from the rest of the world. Encompassing the Transcendental Era are the beliefs of ideality, establishment of a utopia, skepticism of religion, and the arrival of knowledge through intuition. The reader can see a demonstration of these beliefs in the short story To Build a Fire. In this story, London depicts
Reason and enlightenment played a dominant role during the period of the age of reason. Satirical and skeptical were the mode of their writing style. Emotions, feelings, instinct and idealism are key for the writer those emerged during the Romantic and Gothic period in American literature. Imagination and autobiographical elements dominate in the works whereas supernatural elements are blended in the works of the Dark Romantics. Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists.
A Separate Piece of Literature In the words of the great Friedrich Nietzsche, “There are no facts, only interpretations”. Now, while this quote may not be applicable to everything, it certainly finds its place in literature, more specifically framed narratives. Already, in literature, biases are developed by the reader towards certain characters or events that change the reader’s outlook on the entire book in most cases. And when the person narrating the novel may derive personal gain from contorting the facts, however minor, it results in an even more skewed perspective for the reader. Gene narrating the novel A Separate Peace by John Knowles, results in a story different from what it would be if it was a third person narrative, due to the fact that everything is every biased by Gene’s perspective.
Fragmentation is a form of writing opposite of the Realist and Naturalist eras that encompasses modernisms search for new and influential forms of writing that help the read take a new first person perspective on each character as they were coming into play during the story. For instance, the story starts from the perspective of Darl, and then transitions to Cora, and so on, and so on, throughout the story. Liam C. Butchart analyzes this style in greater detail.
The twentieth century saw an influx of writers that assisted in creating the literary world that modern society lives in. Their stories and novels touched upon subjects that were once taboo in American culture. Instead of recounting dreamy landscapes and the idea of utopia, they focused on the realities of life. Their writings aided in delving deeper into the human psyche and its inner workings; they sought to understand the world around them. With the introduction of these pioneering authors, literature expanded greatly and covered topics that were once thought of as untouchable or inappropriate for discussion.
As far as the play of language produces meaning from differance, meaning arises from the lack of authoritative, unique, absolute or central significance. In both their plots and their themes, Faulkner's novels often appear bereft of conclusive sense. The author whose literary ambition is to “leave a scratch on that wall - Kilroy was here” (Faulkner in the University 61) discovers the meaning of his works during the course of their composition. Meaning must await being said or written in order to inhabit itself, and in order to become, by differing from oneself what it is: meaning... It is because writing is inaugural, in the fresh sense of the word, that it is dangerous and anguishing.