The scene of literary creativity comprises the memorable titles; The Odyssey, The Divine Comedy, and in English, Beowulf, and in Russia War and Peace, and – starting from the second decade of the twentieth century – James Joyce’s Ulysses. Equally, the names ‘Odysseus’, ‘Gilgamesh’, ‘Charlemagne’ and ‘Captain Ahab’ haunt the memory of the literary audience. In real life, the human species tends to act as heroic as the afore-said names or to be immortalized in works such as the afore-cited ones. Once, an English female had enough ambition to overcome her being declared illegitimate by her father’s parliament and being formally excommunicated by the Pope in 1570 to be crowned as Queen Elizabeth of England and for forty-five years (1558-1603).
The Waste Land by T.S. Eliot is a complex, epic and infinitely ambitious poem and as such, it is regarded as one of the most important poems in all of literature. It is a true representation of Modernist writing, possessing much of the literary characteristics that have since been labelled as "Modernist." Lewis Turco states that "anyone coming to literary consciousness after 1923 must at least confront, if not come to terms with, The Waste Land, (289)" while Robert E. Knoll states that the poem is the "most controversial and the most influential poem of the twentieth century" (qtd. in Hinchliffe 11).
T. S. Eliot 's "The Fire Sermon" is a poem consisting of different speakers, tones, and sound patterns. I draw attention to these by slowing or speeding up while reading, changing the tone of my voice, putting emphasis on specific words or lines. T. S. Eliot composed this poem in 1921 ("T. S. Eliot Biography"), which is significant because this is after the war and his world would have been a "Waste Land". This real world is mirrored in his writings through filth and impurity. Stylistic choices bring forth the importance of sexual desire and emotional/physical impurity and highlight the irony of alluding to both Buddhism and Christianity because of their avoidance of passion.
He also suggests that the poem reflects the preChristian past [Tolkein, 1936]3. The text further gives evidence of it being a Christian poem when after slaying the slave, Beowulf presents to Hrothgar the hilt of his sword on which was engraved the slaying of giants as depicted in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 6:4, Beowulf, lines 1690-950)[Bodek,2004]. The question of whether Beowulf is a Christian or pagan poem is still largely debated. However, this confusion does not take away the central characteristics of the poem, which is its epic descriptions of war, its vivid imagery and glorifying of a hero which later acted as a style for poets and dramatists to personify their
Yeats poem is seen to be written in rough iambic pentameter, making it fundamentally written in blank verse - even though it seems to be more so a free verse with frequent heavy stresses and a loose meter. It does not seem to follow a particular formal tradition, with the 22 lines being divided into two separate stanzas. Likewise, the rhyme scheme is similar to that of the type of poem – being hap-hazardous. Apart from the two couplets with which the poem opens, being “Turning and turning in the widening gyre, [t]he falcon cannot hear the falconer” (1 & 2), there are only coincidental rhymes in the poems – such as “man” (14) and “sun”
ELIOT 'S MODERNISM ' ' A VOYAGE FROM PAST TO PRESENT ' ': T. S. Eliot 's poetry sheds light on the modernist literature and determines the framework of the modern poetry through a plenty of innovative techniques. Principally, impersonality roots in Eliot 's poetry; which means an escape from personality and emotions (Underhill 170). His theory of impersonality in poetry is a strategy of avoiding confession (191). Ackerly draws attention to Eliot 's poetry 's paradoxical condition by claiming that his verse encapsulates the most harrowing personal feelings and presents the most agonizing image of the individual mind in spite of his insistence on impersonality (Ackerly 8). It can be said that his theory of the impersonal nature of art is
He has his affinities with the great 19th century romantics rather than with the great moderns. But some critics have shown that Frost is essentially a modern poet, and that the surface simplicity of his poetry is deceptive and misleading. In reality, he is a very complex and intricate poet, and this complexity arises from his extensive use of symbols. He himself tells us in his article The Figure a Poem Makes, “he is by intension a symbolist who takes his symbols from the public
Modernism, as a movement, can be plainly understood as a conscious and essential transfer away from tradition and accordingly by the employment of novel and revolutionary range of expression. Thus, a visible amendment can be seen in fields of art and literature from the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The ‘traditional’ approach and reaction became outmoded in the new-fangled circumstances and were substituted by ‘modern’ philosophy. Social change and advancement in the field of science and technology embarked on, pushing away the modernists from Victorian morals and conventions to modernize, unconventional principles. T.S Eliot’s The Waste Land, is an exemplary of Modernist text, in which Eliot largely discusses the emotional
In a preface to his poems, he declared: “My subject is War and the pity of War. The poetry is in the pity” (220) .All his best poems are informed with this pity, a pity controlled by a highly sensitive irony. The important war poets are Sir William Watson, Henry New-Bolt, Sorely, Owen, Rosenberg and Sassoon. The first two are chauvinistic; the others are sensitive to the misery and sufferings brought about by the war. The horrors of the First World War marked the end of a phase of Western European Liberal Culture.
Yet, all these functions have nothing in common either with the initial use of the font or with the convention existing in the early eighteenth century, when Robinson Crusoe was written and published. Hence, to analyse the typography of the novel a research of the history of the typefont under discussion has been conducted and the most frequent uses of the font relevant for the literary work in question have been found/analysed.In the beginning of the eighteenth century, the authorship was still a rather vague category. The writers were not completely independent: disregarding the Copyright Act of 1710, the most authors usually surrendered all rights on/to/for their works to the publishers. There is a strong evidence/belief/suspicion that Defoe was not an exception, that is he did not own the copyright of Robinson Crusoe himself. Consequently, it seems improbable that the whole responsibility for all instances of typography in the novel rested with