During the Cold War era (1947 - 1991), two versions of modernization theory were prominent. Marxist view The Marxist theory of modernization theorized that as nations developed, adopting a communist approach to governing, such as eradicating private property, would end conflict, exploitation, and inequality. Economic development and social change would lead developing nations to develop into a society much like that of the Soviet Union. Capitalist view The capitalist version of modernization theorized that as nations developed, economic development and social change would lead to democracy. Many modernization theorists of the time, such as W. W. Rostow, argued that when societies transitioned from traditional societies to modern societies they would follow a similar path.
The treatment of intangibles (quantification) and the problem of equity have been discussed above. These issues represent limitations of the method in the sense that neither is addressed ‘automatically’ in the cost-benefit process. If the decision-maker is to be in a position properly to take account of intangible considerations and equity concerns, the analyst must, in a sense, go beyond the ordinary requirements of a cost-benefit analysis. Similarly, when the decision-makers interest is naturally focused on the ‘bottom line’, it is easy for the analysis itself to be rather obscure. No analysis is better than the assumptions on which it is based and, in the interest of ‘quality control’, assumptions should always be made explicit.
The social theorists highlight how the modernization unfolds in Eastern countries through the globalization and the advance of new technology. Modernity is defined as the contemporary pattern of motivational, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics that individuals adapt in modern societies, which is greatly related to individualism and egalitarianism of the Western culture (Farh, 1997). Although the modernization will not lead to completely wipe out or marginalize traditional values within an individual, there is a profound change in norms handed over through generations and that now organize social schema, for instance, a traditional value, attachment to the traditional family, in which promoting the stability, hierarchy of family roles, and differentiation of gender roles. These modernized individuals transform from the traditional values to the modernization in
It also includes updates not only in our society, but also across the globe. People are free to interact, therefore, everybody will become aware of almost all of the events. They are able to do what they want, apprise what they feel and use Social Media as an instrument for freedom of speech. It has entertainment purposes which relax and calm down the users mentally and emotionally. References for assignments, research and academic purposes are also found in Social Networking sites where everybody is able to connect on real-time.
Challenges of sharing digital information The growth and advances in information system technology nowadays have lead to the sharing of data and information in variety of digital or electronic form such as newspaper online, e-journal, video, images and many more. This happens because of the existence internet and technology that used by almost everyone around the world. The technology makes it possible for people to access valuable information through millions of websites that have been produced by people who are willing or intend to share the knowledge. The technology also allows people to communicate with one another by sharing the digital information through email, instant messaging or in social networking medium. According to the Diane H. Sonnenwald, information sharing includes providing information, confirming the information has been received, and confirming that the information is equally understood.
Other benefits of social media how to Publish things, These sites disseminate information, for instance, the data about your company or products. (November, 2012). Furthermore, Publishing sites include Type Pad, Blogger, Wikipedia and Joomla. Blogger allows Internet users to publish their own materials on any topic. Available in 41 languages, it enables the instantaneous sharing of all types of information in multiple formats, including video, making it a
Modernisation is the progression from a rural agrarian society towards a more secular industrial society that is induced through political change, economic change and changing ideas. Modernisation thus creates a division in society with what is known as ‘us and them.’ This essay aims to show how ‘modern African societies as well as the African diaspora are divided into ‘us and them’ through the racial and class divide that was brought about by industrialisation, colonisation, westernisation and racism. This essay will also seek to explain the origins of modernisation in Britain and how the influence of modernisation manifested itself in what is known today as westernisation. The word modernisation means to move from a traditional society towards a more progressive society. The word was first used in Britain to describe the transition that took place in which Britain moved from a religious based society towards a more scientific based society known as the age of enlightenment (Seekings,2018).
Modern societies are conceived to be more secular vis a vis traditional society. There is constant climate of change and in which contracts are established which are deemed fit. These contracts are usually orientated towards economic and political benefits/interests of the commanding modern State. It is assumed modern societies are more tolerant than the earlier ones. Modernization theory by define has connotation that cannot be accepted in its
First, susbsystems are differentiated, then it grows to cope with problems more efficiently. Finally, value systems, like subsystems, become more differentiated thus a generalization of values is expected as societies evolve (Ritzer, 2011). Parsonian definition of social change speaks of a evolutionary type of transition that people would slowly accept and adapt or adjust to. Karl Marx, in contrast, defined change as a revolutionary transition wherein the working class overthrows the ruling class resulting to the abolishment of existing old relations. In his dialectical-historical materialism, he emphasized the material basis of social change as the struggle between the forces of production, being dynamic, and relations of production, being static and resistant to change; gives birth to an embryo of new forces and relations of
The first way is understanding time as a specific point in a space. This specific point will also have determinate ideas, ideologies and trends that will influence the nature of institutions created at that time. Additionally, the second way time can be understood is by looking at time as a variable that acts upon institutional change. This time variable challenges the endurance of an institution by changing preferences and needs. Time can influence institutions both positively but also negatively hindering their endurance and enforcement capabilities.