Modernization Theory Case Study

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In this paper Modernization theory and World System theory will be covered. In my opinion, for the explanation of development, social and economic progress, Modernization theory more emphasize on individual level and sociological level. While World System more emphasize on state and system level which is highly political. In order to evaluate the validity of 2 theories, China is used as a case study. Details will be mentioned below:
The function of development
Modernization Theory
Evolution of world Development is related to the evolution of societies from traditional to modern. Actually, modern refers to the society of western powers which are regarded as successful after industrial revolution. In addition, modernization is an intra-societal
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Strong states would bully weaker states. That means, core states would bully peripheral states. Therefore, capitalism involves two things: one is appropriation of the surplus values by an owner from a laborer while another one is appropriation of surplus of the whole world-economy by core areas (Wallerstein, 1979).
The case of China
Modernization Theory
Realization of better civilization of human beings According to Inkeles (1975), economic and social progress contributes the emergence of “new people” which consists of individual modernity. They receive education and more engagement in national building actively. In other words, they are informed and participating citizens. They have stronger sense of personal efficacy which allows people to do more things for making changes. Also, they are more open minded to accept new ideas for economic or social changes.

Formation of a Western-like state in the third world Social and economic progress with Western style allows less developed third world to escape from a society with poor living environment and poverty, etc. Progress of modernization realizes human potential of the third world which in turn builds a closer interaction with the Western world (Przeworski,
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Bourgeoisie are motivated for pursing competitive advantage which enrich the definition of state about power as political structures. Also, they become more emphasize on limitations caused by the interstate system. The goal of becoming strong (core) state exists. States want to become entirely strong in 3 spheres: Vis-à-vis other internal loci of power, vis-à-vis other states and external non-state forces. During the process of improving the 3 spheres, major institutions will be changed gradually. Taking labor issue as an example, workers in peripheral states will be subjected to extra-economic coercion as their political organizations (state apparatus) are abused by core or semi-peripheral states. The interest of workers in peripheral states is sacrificed in exchange of export to core or semi-peripheral states. Eventually, the improvement of economic condition of peripheral states allows them to move to semi-peripheral level. Then, states have less pressure from exploitation of core states which provide space for improving condition of workers. As a result, states allow the existence of labor union (Wallerstein,
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