As such, the Martin Luther, the once humble Augustinian monk from Germany, became a key historical figure of the Reformation. The reform movement swiftly gained adherents in a number of German states, in addition to various northern European countries, such as England and Scotland. The movement had managed to attract both genuine individuals who sought to reform Roman Catholic orthodoxy as well as political leaders who sought to enlarge their power through the subversion against the church. In addition to Luther, many historians in the early twentieth century have focussed their work on John Calvin and his role in the early Reformation period. Calvin was a Frenchman who later settled in Geneva.
For a good part of human history (especially the medieval times), people counted on authority and tradition to decide their beliefs, views, and morals; Religion being a hugely-focused on truth in society. Pascal and Descartes were two early philosophers to question this. Pascal fully understood the uncertainty of God in reality; how science cannot prove or disprove a God, therefore
However, the biggest difference with the Chesapeake region’s inhabitants was that the Puritans didn’t aim primarily for economic benefit or trade. They wanted to create pure, moral Christian society based on moral living. By hard working, integration of religion in politics, and social development of certain lifestyle practices, Puritans had a large influence on the development of the New England colonies from 1630s through the 1660s. Puritans believed in hard work as the pathway of success since they thought they were favored by God to succeed (Doc I). They tried to shun idleness and believed that being lazy is not profitable (Doc C).
The Medici family is known as the “Godfathers of the Renaissance”. They are not only responsible for being patrons to some of the greatest innovators of their time but also changing the way life was done around them. The influence of the Medici family throughout the Renaissance period is an example of the common themes theory as the family helped with new economic development through their patronage in the arts and education. At the start of the Renaissance there was not a unit of power that truly took control of the city of Florence, until the Medici came into power. There was only religious control telling the people what they could and could not do and even those in charge of religious positions fell to corruption.
But, what did the Pope and other religious leaders benefited out of these events, except the religious merits? To begin with, there were many conflicts within the territory which produced social unrest while this was not in the benefit of the religious leaders nor to the nobility, both trying to gain more power. The Popes objectives were to create a common enemy and unite the people who consider themselves part of the Christendom. In other words, as we referred to during the block, the Pope managed to export the violence outside of the Christendom what gave him a central role in organizing the military, thus gain more political power. In addition, Crusades contributed in large scale in territorial expansion, which in turn produced more taxes.
The Roman Catholic Church fought to maintain its power while Europe came in to contact with other religions and Christians themselves began to question the role and dominance of the Vatican. Added to that, were discoveries in all fields including anatomy and astrology and even physical discoveries such as Columbus’s voyage to the New World. It is against this background that some of the greatest works of art were created by some great artists. This polymaths would have had opinions shaped by the discoveries and developments of the time, but would have depended on the Church to commission and pay for their work. The question is: To what extend the Church and new
However, there are new religions and new gods being brought up quite frequently. A specific religion is christianity. Christianity was very unlike other religions, particularly because of their monotheistic views. Christians were seen as threat to the Romans at this time prior to around 381, which is around when Christianity became a common religion. Although Christians were good citizens, and people who wanted to follow Jesus, they were constantly impacted by aspects of the Roman culture.
He argued that the League 'began with inter-faith cultural intentions but has since escalated into a mass organisation dominated by Catholics.' He also exclaimed that 'the ideology that the Irish language would be re-established would be a weapon of nationalists and Catholics.' This aroused fear and hostility amongst Protestants. The Gaelic League continued to lose enthusiasm and cultural spirit. It became a means of recreation and socialism rather than a movement towards cultural nationalism.
Introduction The Life of St. Antony by Athanasius was a very important book to the Christian Byzantines and was continuously read throughout the early Christian world. It was a biography that was also held up as a model of the ideal life in the Byzantine civilization. The author himself, St. Athanasius, was a man that would have preferred the monastic lifestyle, but was an important and influential man in the church and therefore, contrary to his wishes, had to live among the people. This colours his perspective and most likely makes him somewhat biased in the way that he describes St. Antony. The appearance of St. Antony is rarely mentioned throughout the text which suggests that it is not significant to Athanasius when he writes it.
Martin Luther Thump, Thump, Thump. These hits of a hammer on a nail would change the course of Christianity and its influence on others for the rest of time. In the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was an influential figure which dictated daily life and spread the teachings of Jesus Christ. With the power to control how people live, the Catholic Church eventually became corrupt. The Catholic Church’s flawed ideas on how people should prove themselves worthy of God’s protection eventually led to public disapproval.
When talking about the church, a person must keep in mind the rituals that are performed usually by said churches. Sometimes these rituals are traditional, but you must not forget that the church does attempt to avoid such practices unless they were to adapt to such a stale lifestyle. To do this churches use genres to help impact the action going on in-/outside of the church—by that, of course, churches also vary in actions. Johnathan Swales tells us that, “a discourse community utilizes and hence possesses one or more genres in the communicative furtherance of its aims” (221). The church most dearest to me is none other than Titus Harvest Dome.
Prior to 1550, the European continent was dominated by Catholicism and had been for centuries. However, Protestantism first introduced by Martin Luther had begun to make inroads in the Holy Roman Empire and Nordic countries. Despite the growing popularity of these new religions, the majority of monarchs saw religious diversity as a weakness. Instead, most rulers pursued Religious uniformity to ensure political stability and strength. Examples of monarchs attempting to achieve religious university abound from Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, to Rome, and to England.
Ignorance was the norm, intellectual life was nearly non-existent. The Church was a dominant and powerful presence in Europe at the height of its power, though sinful and barbaric as it was. As the Renaissance spread through Europe, individuals became educated and fought to break the stronghold the Church held over the continent. Power in the Church declined as intellectuals came to criticize it, garnering supporters and ending the centuries of religious unity in Europe. This rebirth, this period of flowering creativity and thinking led to great changes and improvements as individuals focused on the “here and now” rather than religious affairs.
Additionally the Church, was an extremely rich and defenseless target for the raiders and may have been more frequently targeted than many other parts of European kingdoms. Regardless, the notoriety of the Vikings, within a century or two was gone. Many of them had converted to Christianity and settled in their occupied territories. At the same time, Scandinavians were developing new settlements in Iceland, Greenland, North America, and the North Atlantic, and created European style kingdoms in Scandinavia. As they became assimilated in their new lands
Christians were persecuted, temples were desecrated, and holy texts were burnt. Contrary to what Diocletian expected, however, the pagans defended their fellow Romans, leading to a remarkable period of religious unity and acceptance amongst the citizens of the Roman Empire (7-8). To this end, the failure of Diocletian’s Christian persecution was a significant factor leading to the eventual domination of Christianity in western society due to the fact that it precipitated the empire’s growing toleration of Christian