The fiscal policy is primarily an instrument in the hands of the government whereby it estimates its revenues and expenditures in the economy. This is a very important tool as it would define the flow of money from different sources, indicating the level of activity in the economy. It also defines the broad policies of the government indicating the outwards flow of money in to different sectors of the economy to maintain the overall health of the economy and fulfill its social goals. Apart from the fiscal policy every country has monetary policy at its disposal. This is primarily a tool at the disposal of the central bank of a country which uses different tools to manage the macro economic variables of a country to keep the economy stable or to stabilize it in situations of fluctuations.
By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy. The dynamic Three Equation Macro Model designed by Charles I. Jones allows us to trace the behavior of the Fed’s monetary policy and other economic variables over time when the economy is exposed to different kinds of shocks. The model incorporates IS curve along with the Phillips curve and the Taylor Rule, assuming the adaptive inflation
A country can attract foreign direct investment by devaluing the currency because foreign direct investment will benefit from the weakness of the currency of the host country. The depreciation of the national currency against the Malaysian Ringgit foreign investors will increase foreign direct investment inflows. The exchange rate is one of the most important factors that affect trade between the countries. If the exchange rate rises, banks are relatively more favorable to the exporter, the exporter will be aware to changes in exchange rates. Statutory corporate tax rate is used as a proxy for the effects of fiscal policy to all new investors, ignoring tax holidays, accelerated depreciation and other incentives that reduce the effects of the statutory rate.
Fiscal policy happens when an alteration takes controls of employment and household income which determines consumer’s spending and investment on different resources. The expansionary fiscal policy is done to respond to employment shocks, over the spending of the government projects on education, infrastructure and benefits to unemployment. Given programs prohibits a negative shift in the aggregate demand for it maintains employment in the government employees and gets people involved with different developments in industries. Continuous or extension in the unemployment benefits
. To ensure price stability is maintained the Reserve Bank adjust the OCR which influences prices in the economy. Price stability, which is when the purchasing power of money stays constant, is a desirable outcome of the government because inflation has several negative impacts on household and firms. Inflation erodes the values of households’ savings and causes those on a fixed income to lose purchasing power, the quantity of goods a set amount of money will buy. For firms, inflation causes cost or production to income since workers’ demand pay rises, as well as making it difficult to firms to plan for future.
Throughout Karl Marx writings, capitalism is described as one of his major works. He defines capitalism as constantly revolutionizing amongst goods. Marx defines capital as the capitalist mode of production, a form of exchange, and a commodity. Marx asserts that the exchange of commodities is the beginning point of capitol. One other thing that Marx points out is the importance of money to capitol.
As a result, the GDP is rapidly growing since 1995 (World Bank Data 2017), which indicates that the purchasing power of customers is sharply boosting in the domestic market. In 2001, China was formed into BRIC with other three countries as one of most powerful emerging market country in the world, the utility of being one of the most powerful emerging countries simulates foreign investment in manufacturing industries, as it offers greater business opportunities for entrepreneurs to dive into the
When the government decides on the goods and services it purchases, the transfer payments it distributes, or the taxes it collects, it is engaging in fiscal policy. Monetary Policy The actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. Monetary policy is maintained through actions such as increasing the interest rate, or changing the amount of money banks need to keep in the vault (bank reserves) Monetary policy has lived under many guises. But however it may appear, it generally boils down to adjusting the supply of money in the economy to achieve some combination of inflation and output stabilization. Most economists would agree that in the long run, output usually measured by gross domestic product (GDP) is fixed, so any changes in the money supply only cause prices to change.
Before start talking about monetary growth we need to clearly understand how it is happening; what drives money, which money aggregates equipped and how it is structured. First of all, I would like to examine what is the money supply, because on this base is considered every money growth. Money supply (or money stock) - is the total amount or monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time. Another words we can say that it is the sum-total of cash in circulation, bank deposits and balances in the accounts at the disposal of individuals, legal entities and the state. Money supply makes movement of money stream, which called currency.
Running head: PROTECTIONISM ECONOMY 1 How National Economic Protectionism Helps National Economy Growth Yuhua Li Stony Brook University Abstract Key words: economic protectionism, economic growth, challenges, profit, free trade Introduction The idea of globalization has been widely adopted by the majority of states collaborating to deliver quality products at affordable prices. The wide campaign for open markets and increased relations is for the obvious reasons including specialization and increased productivity, the creation of quality commodities and innovation, and the identification of new markets is hence improving organizational sales. However,