Dualism In Early Buddhism

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In order to present a reality, one needs to presents through the concept of monism, dualism, physicalism and idealism. Monism is the independent existent of a single reality. It can be either mental or physical by nature. The fundamental existent of mental by nature is idealism, which is opposed to dualism, of mind and matter in reality. On the other hand, physicalism is the independent reduction to materiality. Among the earliest western philosophers Parmenides and Spinoza each believed that there could only be one kind of self-subsistent, real thing. (Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, ‘monism’). Pāli Tipiṭaka also implicitly expresses the interest of monism, dualism, physicalism (though will be different from modern philosophy) and idealism.…show more content…
Exclusively the inanimate things are materiality in nature. However, animate things are the dual nature of mind and matter. Implicit inclination of monism shows the interest of monism in early Buddhism. As it explains in one of the eight liberations (vimutti) through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, one reaches the sphere of neither perception-nor-non-perception. Sammādiṭṭhisutta also shows the immaterial existence in the threefold existences, namely sensual existence, material existence and immaterial existence. (Tayome, āvuso, bhavā — kāmabhavo, rūpabhavo, arūpabhavo, M I 51). For the immaterial being or sphere of consciousness, it is so called that it cannot be said either to include perception or to exclude perception. The factor of perception (saññā) has become so subtle that it can no longer perform the decisive function of perception and thus this state cannot be said to have perception. (Bodhi, Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, 2007: 63). It also suggests that the three ways of performing action namely through sense sphere mind (kāma), material absorption mind (rūpa) and immaterial absorption mind (arūpa). It also indicates the plane of existence of particular plain for particular beings. Thus, we could see the analysis of thirty-one plane of existence based on, sense sphere, material sphere and immaterial
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