Monkeypox Research Paper

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The clinical presentation of human monkeypox, described primarily in children and adolescents identified in central and west Africa, has been characterized as a viral prodrome of fever, chills, headache, myalgias, and back pain lasting 1–3 days, followed by a maculopapular exanthema eruption. The rash is predominantly monomorphic in a centrifugal distribution, progresses to vesicular and pustular stages, and crusts during a 2– 3-week period (Meyer et al., 2002 and Jezek et al., 1987)

Monkeypox can cause a syndrome clinically similar to smallpox but overall are less infectious and less deadly. The incubation period averages 12 days, ranging from 4-20 days. In the prodrome or pre-eruptive stage (lasts 1-10 days), fever is commonly the first symptom (usually 38.5-40.5°C). The febrile illness is often accompanied by chills, drenching sweats, severe headache, backache, myalgia, malaise, anorexia, prostration, pharyngitis, shortness of breath, and cough (with or without sputum). Lymphadenopathy appears within 2-3 days after the
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However, unlike smallpox, skin lesions may appear in crops. In contrast to smallpox, the lesions do not have a strong centrifugal distribution. Lesions progress from macules to papules to vesicles and pustules; the face, the trunk, the extremities, and the scalp are involved. Lesions appear in covered and uncovered areas. Lesions may be seen on the palms and the soles. Necrosis, petechiae, and ulceration may be features. Pain is unusual, and, if it occurs, it is often associated with secondary bacterial infection. Pruritus may occur. In patients who have been previously vaccinated against smallpox, a milder form of disease occurs. In children, the lesions may appear as nonspecific, erythematous papules that are 1-5 mm in diameter and suggestive of arthropod bite

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