Behaviourism: Behaviourism assumes that a learner is fundamentally flaccid, replying to environmental incentives. Behaviour theorists states learning as nothing more than the attainment of new behaviour. In this theory Language acquisition is the result of stimulus-response activities where factors that facilitate are imitation, replication, reward and reinforcement. Cognitivism Cognitivists are related with ‘cognition’ and how it marks individual ‘learning’. Cognitive Learning Theory suggests that the different methods regarding learning can be elucidated by scrutinising the mental progressions first.
Cognition is the study of the mind works. When we study cognitive development, we are acknowledging the fact that changes occur in how we think and learn as we grow. There is a very big difference in the way that children and adults think about and understand their environment. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a biology student did extensive research work in the area of child development and is attributed with the development of the theory of cognitive development which has played a major role in this field (child development). His approach of studying the development of the human mind was a synthesis of ideas drawn from biology and philosophy.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
Introduction The work of constructivist theorists, notably Piaget and Vygotsky, identified two constructivist learning models, which are: individual constructivism, which states that knowledge is constructed from personal experience by the individual, and social constructivism, which declares that knowledge, is acquired through collaboration with meaning negotiated from multiple perspectives (Almala, 2006) Piaget is known as the first constructivist, asserts that the theory of constructivism emphasis on the process of finding a theory or knowledge that is built from the ground realities. The role of teachers in teaching according this theory is as a facilitator or moderator. The views of the children of the more recent constructivist developed
Education is the process in which someone is being taught and acquiring knowledge. The knowledge we acquire prepares us for the future that is waiting upon us. The purpose of education is to produce people who are capable of making their own decisions and think for themselves. We discover ourselves through education and discover what we must develop on. In the quote, “The paradox of education is precisely this - that as one begins to become conscious one begins to examine the society in which he [one] is being educated.” James Baldwin is trying to say that as become more educated, we, ironically, begin to examine, question, and even reject what we have been taught.
What Freire tries to convey in his work is that the way the act of educating is performed has a profound impact on the way the students materialize into the real world and how education can be used, intentionally or not, to control the students. Freire begins by positing that modern education is of narrative manner,
I was particularly struck by the distinction between different modes of delivering curriculum and in particular the contrast between Product and Process methods, in curriculum development. At this point it might be useful to analyse the distinction between these two processes. Neary identifies the Product Model as one that “emphasises plans and intentions” whereas in the Process Model, the emphasis is on the “activities and effects” (O’Neill 2015, p27). In essence therefore the Product Model can be regarded as a more traditional and historically tested method of developing curriculum. The work of John Franklin Bobbitt and Ralph Tyler very much advocate Product curricular designs, maintaining that these designs are centred on the creation of a disciplined and “structured learning environment for students” (O’Neill 2015, p).
Positivism can be understood as the idea that the methods of the natural sciences should be used to study human and social matters. In this essay I will be explaining how positivism gave substance to the idea whilst paying particular attention to the role of induction and deduction. Positivism has had some influence in Education and the essay will attempt to outline and critically discuss some of these influences. The knowledge that we acquire is from observations with the aid of our senses. This is how we interact with the world by being in and partaking in it.
Watson (1924) describes behavioural learning theory as “a natural science that takes the whole field of human adjustments as its own”. Behaviourism is an educational theory which assumes an overall interpretation of human behaviour, a worldwide view operating on the human response to various stimuli. Behaviourism will be the main focus of the essay, which will continue by outlining the key principles of this educational theory, examining both the literature and research surrounding these responses. Finally, the link between behavioural learning theory and classroom practice will be discussed. Pavlov is considered to be the forefather of behavioural learning theory, as seen through his experiments and research in the area surrounding classical
In that Dewey came up with three tenets that sought to focus on Philosophy in education. Throughout this essay the writer implicitly focused attention on individualism, pragmatism and the integration of the school and society. The writer highlighted a critical issue that is affecting the Jamaican education systems and made indication of two of Dewey’s views in mitigating the problem. Also discussed was the importance of children learning by doing things within their natural environment. This enables children’s knowledge to be developed from real and meaningful