Moore's Law Case Study

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Moore’s Law Moore’s law in 1975 suggests that the component density in any integrated circuit approximately doubles every 2 years. The growing trends in CMOS technology does give us a perpetual reminder of the Moore’s law. Moore’s law has been kept unabated because of the sole reason that Si CMOS technology was scalable. Scalability has given solid state devices the boon to consume less power and occupy a smaller area while still being cheap. However the scaling down has led to dominating effects that are unavoidable. This has led to investments in viable alternate technologies to replace the Si CMOS at feature sizes less that 25nm(?). Research has been undertaken to utilize Carbon as a replacement to Silicon because of…show more content…
Silicon first replaced the vacuum tube transistor mainly for their unusually large size and the excessive power consumption. Vacuum tube transistors were also known as thermionic triodes. The vacuum tubes had an operational advantage over the Si transistors purely because the electron mobility is better in vacuum than in Si. Silicon transistors were less immune to electro-magnetic interferences and weren’t then suitable for high frequency applications but that was hardly a deal breaker compared to the size reduction and minimized power consumption. Hence Si was chosen to lead the electronics industry henceforth. Silicon held the market for electronics for half a century with the benefaction of scaling but it had to saturate at some point and it did at 25nm(?). Fig1: BJT versus Vacuum tube triodes 1.3 Scaling Silicon Electronic appliances become smaller and smaller by the year. This minimization in the size is aided by the process of the scaling down the transistor’s channel length. Drastic reduction in the device dimension has proved effective till a point, however Moore’s law will fail if it is completely dependent on the conventional scaling theory. Scaling below 25nm(?) leads to increase in leakage current which sets of a chain reaction making it impossible to reduce threshold voltage and increase switching speeds. A few problems posed by excessive scaling are related to threshold voltage, electric field,…show more content…
Nanotubes where the value of is an integral multiple of 3 exhibit metallic behavior while the rest exhibit semiconducting behavior. The energy band structure of a CNT enables it to achieve ballistic transport at relatively larger channel lengths. Ballistic transport mechanism is achieved when an electron travels from the source to drain without undergoing collision anywhere in the channel. A transistor is said to be ballistic if the channel length is smaller than the mean free path of the electron. Mean free path is defined as the distance the electron travels before it undergoes collision. Since there is barely any collision in the transport from Source to Drain the energy loss is minimal. The band gap of a semiconducting CNT is inversely proportional to its diameter. Bandgap of a semiconductor is defined as the energy require to break a covalent bond to release an electron for
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