In studying adolescent development, adolescence can be defined biologically, as the physical transition marked by the onset of puberty and the termination of physical growth; cognitively, as changes in the ability to think abstractly and multi-dimensionally; or socially, as a period of preparation for adult roles. Cognitive advances encompass both increases in knowledge and in the ability to think abstractly and to reason more effectively. Developmental psychologists might focus on changes in relations with parents and peers as a function of school structure and pubertal status.Therefore, as adolescents grow in maturity they also learn how to regulate their emotions which has positive and negative effects on relationship with family and friends. (a textbook of child psychology virender kumar 2012). As adolescents acquire greater conceptual complexity and participated in more varied social relationship, they begin to be able to assume an adult perspective in problem solving and decision making.
He holds the opinion that each stage has specific tasks a person should accomplish (HQ, 2017). Individuals who complete a particular phase successfully can increase their independence and have a good feeling about themselves. During adolescence, an individual goes through the stage of identity versus role confusion. Adolescents should be able to apply the experience they acquired in the previous stages to secure a sense of self. The adolescent stage, however, requires that a person has a positive life experience to increase his or her satisfaction in life.
Identity development during adolescence Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood and also a period of prominent change for teenagers when physical changes are happening at an accelerated rate. Adolescence is not just marked by physical changes but also cognitive, social, emotional and interpersonal changes as well. The development of a strong and stable sense of self known as identity development is widely considered to be one of the crucial tasks of adolescence. Identity development of an adolescent is influenced by external factors, such as their environment, culture, religion, school and the media. Despite the fact that identity development occurs throughout one 's lifetime, adolescence is the stage where individuals begin to think and experience a sense of self or identity for the first time and how that could affect their lives (Steinberg, 2008).
This leads to greater awareness of others, and their thoughts and judgments (). Adolescents also develop the ability to think about future possibilities and the ability to consider multiple possibilities at once (). Adolescents can gain insight to long-term possibilities and consequences of their choices. Differentiation occurs as an adolescent recognizes and distinguishes the contextual influences on their own behaviour and the perceptions of others (). Adolescents begin to identify their traits when describing themselves.
Adolescence is a period of individual’s development in which a person face critical importance in home and in school context (Steinberg, & Silk, 2002). During that period the adolescence changes are developed from the dependent and controlled period of childhood to a period of increasing sense of self-exploration and autonomy (Wentzel, & Battle, 2001). During adolescent age youngsters join college as freshman face the changes in social relations. They face new social demands that require the independence in their social interaction. It is also the time of developing the interpersonal difficulties in adolescence and they feel more difficulties in social interaction (Detweiler, Comer, & Albano, 2010).
Adolescents socialise a lot to fit in their peer group. Adolescents do not rush to their parents whenever they are upset, worried, or in need of assistance, and they can relate to their peers more than adults. Since peer pressure forces teenagers to behave in a certain way, it reduces their self-confidence. This in turn makes them infer social situations as threatening and causes inferiority complex, aggressive behaviour or social withdrawal. Teens may feel they have “grown up”, but their brains are still developing and they are not mature enough to reason and judge.
Any period of development is likely to be supplemented by many potential difficulties. Adolescents are faced with many tough life decisions which, when combined with their lack of self-knowledge, cause identity crises. Unsure about themselves, teenagers must make decisions concerning how they will act, with whom they will associate, and what life decisions they will choose. The prompt, cognitive and social variations of adolescence generate a social-cognitive dilemma for youth. These are the changes in which a teenager should be able to adjust with.
The period of adolescence is characterized by: • Rapid physical development • Behavioral changes • Need for Independence • Need to explore and experiment All individuals need to access information in a timely manner to make the right decisions. However, adolescents need quick access to correct, easily understandable health information as their bodies are rapidly changing and they are very adventurous at this time. The first thing children within the adolescent age range should know about is their bodies and the changes occurring. It is best if adolescents can receive education about these changes from parents and caregivers. RAPID PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Boys • Testicles and scrotum start to grow • Penis grows longer • Hair appears in armpits, around the penis, legs, face etc.
INTRODUCTION Emerging sexuality that accompanies adolescence poses fundamental challenges for youths. Adjusting to altered look and functioning of a sexually matured body, knowing how to deal with sexual desires, values and sexual attitudes, experimenting with sexual behaviours and experiences gives a sense of self growth. Adolescent responses to these challenges are profoundly influenced by the social and cultural context in which they live in. Adolescence means the beginning of physical sexual maturation and reproductive capacity. Young people have a need and a right to know their bodies and to be educated and informed about their sexual wellbeing, however, they are facing many barriers of the receiving community and gaining access to the
Adolescence is an age of possibilities for children.It can also be defined more simply, as the threshold from childhood to adulthood. It is a crucial time for elders to help adolescents build on their development in the first decade of life. To guide them effectively so that they can cope up with risk and vulnerabilities and to set them on the path to fulfilling their potentials. India has the largest national population of adolescents i.e. 243 million.