ICBL can be used as an instructional approach and assessment. Besides the three stages that align with scientific inquiry, the three-phase process of ICBL can be closely mapped to the features of authentic assessment as suggested by Wiggins (1998). In the problem posing phase, an unstructured problem in the form of a real-world case is given to the students for their analysis and problem creation. When they problem solve their proposed questions in the problem solving phase, teachers will guide students on applying knowledge and skills and exploration in the discipline. Finally, in peer persuasion, students will defend their findings and convince their peers.
Learning materials is a learning resource that is used in the learning process. According to Ibrahim (2003, p. 3), learning materials needed by the teacher to manage the learning process includes syllabus, lesson plan, students sheet activity, evaluation instrument or test, instructional media, and students ' book. Learning materials developed in this research include the lesson plan, students sheet activity, test, and instructional media. Lesson plans The Lesson plan is learning activities plan for one or more meetings. The Lesson plan was developed based on the syllabus to guide the students ' learning activities to achieve basic competency.
Reflection Paper 1 About the explicit curriculum Vs implicit curriculum In order to clarify about preferring of explicit curriculum or implicit curriculum, the learners must be understood how both curriculums works as a field of education. Teachers designing their curriculum must consider how the environment of the classroom will impact students. A student will learn from what is taught in a class and from how that class is taught. That student will also take lessons from how her/his class and school are organized. These are the concepts of explicit and implicit curriculum, and they help educators think about the different ways students learn so they can design more effective methods of teaching.
A constructivist view uses the learner's experiences and personal framework, such as memories, associations, feelings, sounds, experiences, rules acquired, and information collected, to help students learn how to actively apply knowledge, solve problems, and promote conceptual understanding. In the process, students can examine in more detail any incoherent or poorly formed concepts and beliefs and adjust them towards more refined and rigorously examined thinking. Teachers using constructivist approaches tend to challenge students with classroom projects and products that allow them to major (Brown, 1994) in areas of their own interests within a topic of study. Teachers also tend to present information across Gardner's multiple intelligence, so that the student's learning styles are consistently optimized. Closely related to a constructivist approach to teaching and learning is the importance of the social environment, peer interaction, and the learning from and with others.
As children will be encouraged to discover information themselves schemes will be used to enable to form a mental representation of the object or action of the information processed (Miller 2010). Thus, the children adapt and adjusts to the new information and experiences to their constantly changing environment. The two processes which will assists teachers to benefit children’s understanding of new information or experiences is assimilation and accommodation. ‘According to Piaget (1958), assimilation and accommodation require an active
The students works individually based on their own interpretation of the problem and concepts they acquired. This phase permitted students to discover answers and explore different solution methods. With this, student developed creativity in problem solving. As what Riki Goldman-Segall (in Dzakiria, 2004.) remarked, knowledge are deconstructions, reconstructions, and co-constructions that emerge as a result of the interaction between what is already known and what is yet to be known again, in a new form.
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR OUTCOMES-BASED ASSESSMENT An educator should use different assessment styles and methods. Assessment should provide learners with many opportunities to show their abilities in the specific knowledge and skills they have learnt. The methods and styles of the assessment must be appropriate to the outcomes being tested. Assessment should focus on the abilities of specific skills and knowledge that need to be tested. If assessment is to be reliable it has to be planned, on-going and incorporated into teaching.
They should practice to distinguish the useful materials and the unusable ones in real life. They need to take risks and discuss the materials and their understanding of it. They need to learn to become less judgmental and honestly try to see the teachers’ point of view and then criticize. They should join in discussion and share what they understand, ask their questions and clarify confusion. They need to let their classmates and their teachers know when they are being challenged.
Assessment for learning Theoretical and historical perspective linking to practice: There have been several theorists who have developed their theories, and have explained their key ideas, and their teachings, learnings, and assessments. Every theory with their own limitations provides their vision, and interpretation of different complex issues. These theories can be used by the educators to resolve their daily issues, and contexts. One of the behaviorist theory advocated by Skinner provides the key idea that behavior can be learned and unlearned, and/or can be replaced with appropriately acceptable behavior. According to him, a child’s behavior reflects the relevant responses they get against behaviors’.
Through the demonstration of problem solving strategies, students’ higher-order thinking could be discovered. According to (Adi Badiozaman, 2006), teachers are far from ready to implement the school-based assessment into the education system. They do not fully realize the concept of school-based assessment and lack the know how in developing the assessment tasks. The major weakness with performance assessment is very time consuming for students and teachers. This means that fewer assessments can be gathered so if they are not carefully devised fewer learning goals will be assessed at which can reduce content validity.