According to Piaget, children between the ages of 5 and 10 see the world through a Heteronomous Morality. In other words, children think that authority figures such as parents and teachers have rules that young people must follow absolutely. Rules are thought of as real, unchangeable guidelines rather than evolving, negotiable, or situational (Oswalt). Other than that, telling a child what is wrong is not enough, as it will not prevent wrong from happening again. A child needs an explanation for the mistakes that they make and must be given a reason why they should not do it again.
In addition, ethical decision-making is a process that encompasses a great use of self-awareness and critical thinking by the practitioner. Therefore, there should be a series of steps that a social worker must take in order to resolve or intent to resolve such a dilemma. I believe that the first step should be recognizing what the ethical dilemma is. Second, the practitioner should be self-aware of how professional values, rather than personal, may interfere with the decision-making process. Lastly, the social worker must consider the structural, cultural, and agency context issues surrounding the presenting ethical dilemma.
Should Children Be Punished Like Adults? Punishment means imposing a certain consequence in an individual due to a wrongdoing made by that individual. In other words, children who have been physically punished feel that they have paid for their misbehavior. Some people see that the punishment is a small part of the stage of discipline and education. However, many of them consider it an important way that warns children and allows them to know that their behavior is wrong, and that they have to remember not to repeat it.
The pre-conventional level occurs before age nine. The pre-conventional level is categorized by egocentrism. Egocentrism is defined as children believing that others view things the exact way that they do. The pre-conventional level of moral development is based on the fear of punishment and they value the benefits for themselves. The conventional level of moral development occurs in early adolescents; this level of moral development is where children begin to believe that rules are crucial for society and decisions are now made based on the feeling of others.
The clients should figure out themselves on how to face the situation. An effective counsellor listen more than talks, and what they do say gives the client a sense of being heard and understood. The client need to find solution on their own as they might face the similar difficult situation again in future. Lastly, a balance of emotion should be met. The client might needed the stressful situation to express their feelings on it.
Ethics is about relationships; it is about fostering critical reflections to help nurture human values and build a sense of community. It is about being able to respond actively to those challenges, injustices and violence and helping restore and transform broken relationships. It is not about defining who is right or wrong but the process of critically reflecting about our beliefs and actions and how those affect the connectedness of life, and actively doing something to ensure human dignity is protected and
When using the ethical decision making model, it is important for counsellors to be self-aware as it will influence how they deal with the behaviours and choices of the client. Self-awareness includes being aware of their emotions, values and biases. A way to work through this is to discuss their feelings of discomfort with their supervisors or colleagues (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011). Self-awareness is key to competent counselling so it logically ensues that it is key to ethical decision making in counselling. A counsellor’s sense of self is important in determining how personal values are enacted with clients and their issues.
The first is the adherence to a moral or ethical principle. The second is the pursuit of an undiminished state or condition, which is acquiring the character strength to learn from one’s past ‘mistakes’ and to continually seek self-improvement. Application of ethical principles and rules are essential to guide someone in doing the right thing in all situations, nevertheless, it is also essential for one to seek developing one’s abilities and propensity to understand situations, and to attain the appropriate skills to carry out the required directives. Hence, leaders must continually seek knowledge and understanding in proper guidance, and attain skills to rightfully interpret situations. Everyone makes mistakes, and being a person of integrity does not mean one has never violated a moral or ethical principle.
It is not acceptable to ignore it. One of the solutions that plagiarism can be tackled is by formulating a strategy that involves actions at all levels. In particular the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) has charged institutions to have “effective mechanisms to deal with breaches of assessment regulations in place and expects to see them carry out fairly and with rigour” (QAA Code of Practice on Assessment, 2000). (1) In order to reduce the likelihood of plagiarism, it is important to focus on taking prevention action which involves better design of assessment and more thorough support for students. A re-evaluation of assessment strategies can reduce the risk of plagiarism.
The other set of elements Herzberg labelled hygiene factors, because they are necessary to keep employees from being dissatisfied. Those elements that cause satisfaction can be thought of as motivators, because employees are motivated to achieve them. This perspective requires an emphasis on the people being led as opposed to the leader. A well-known motivation theory is that of Herzberg (1964). Leaders are certainly in a position to provide either positive or negative consequences to followers, and reinforcement theory has had a significant impact on developing effective leadership