The teacher can regulate instructions rapidly during learning development, allowing students to benefit from these rapid adjustments by means of regulating and emerging own learning progress. Feedback occurs while learning takes place, and effective feedback identifies the gap between where student remains at and where student desires to be. The teacher can be confronted with predicaments performed during formative assessments. There remain no obvious solutions to a situation, and a decision made, exists dependent on the individual situation, appropriate to the teacher and student involved. The teacher relies on professional judgement, formatively assessing the purpose of provoked action.
) can bring to surface hidden potential of students, as well as develop it. Students who participate in extra-curriculum activities are believed to have better academic performance. The "hidden curriculum," which refers to the kinds of learnings children derive from the very nature and organizational design of the public school, as well as from the behaviors and attitudes of teachers and administrators.... " (Longstreet and Shane, 1993). The hidden curriculum gives “hidden” academic, social, and cultural messages that are communicated to students while they are in school. Teachers teach and students learn implicit concepts and patterns.
First of all, formative assessment allow student to gain opportunity on how to take responsibility for their own learning, as example, teachers designed classroom assessment for students, students have to develop an understanding on their own and address findings for the challenge they encounter, all these able to help students aware of their learning needs and interests. Teachers can help student in learning but at the end of the day, student is the one who need to do the learning. Student will have better performance in studies if they figured out their strengths and weaknesses on particular subject they need to work on. Besides that, evaluation such as teachers explain learning aims, give effective feedback and check their understanding after each formative assessment, these helps students in communicate clear and specific learning goals. By setting goal,
A hidden curriculum is the unintended lessons that students learn at their time in school. Skelton defines the hidden curriculum as: That set of implicit messages relating to knowledge, values, norms of behaviour and attitudes that learners experience in and through educational processes. These messages may be contradictory, non-linear and punctuational and each learner mediates the message in her/his own way. (Skelton, 1997, p.188 cited in Paechter, 1999.) Every school has its own planned curriculum which it intends to teach to its students, like a Math lesson plan or an English lesson plan.
The curriculum that teachers are required to teach today limits the information and extra material they can teach the students to succeed. The teachers are required to teach the students information regarding what is needed for the standardized test to advance to the next grade. “Public schools must follow state guidelines that set out specific standards and assessment procedures. In theory, this creates a certain amount of quality control” (Greatschools). With this type of teaching in our public schools it is effecting some student’s education rates and their actual ability to retain the material after taking the test.
Summative assessment is the culmination of the teaching and learning process, and gives the students opportunities to demonstrate what has been learned, as stated on SDH Student Assessment Policy. Summative assessment aims to give teachers and students a clear insight into students’ understanding. Summative test would be given to the students in the end of each unit chapter, and teacher would give numerical score for report card. Sometimes, the students asked me how to count their score in numerical scale for the formative test because they were unsatisfied if they just got teacher’s comment, not a numerical score. Then, I tried to explain that
Many people acknowledge that learning at school is a passive process. Holt (1969) maintained that schools orient students to absorb the information rather than integrate them. Schools only force the students to think and behave in the same so-called standard. In the other words, school kills students’ curiosity, creativity and independence. However, such arguments ignore the fact that nowadays the majority of schools’ pedagogy is transforming into student-centered learning and teaching .The heart of this approach is the collaboration between students and teachers.
Therefore, Suchman developed the inquiry training model to help students to inquire independently in a disciplined manner. But our traditional educational system discourages the natural process of inquiry. Students become more silent in the classrooms as they move through the higher classes. They learn to listen and repeat the expected answers instead of learning to ask too many questions. It is the result of lack of inquiry based learning.
Students work self-reliantly on assignments or as part of independent teams. The teacher is available at the request of students as a resource person. An educator using the delegator teaching style has a habit of placing control and accountability for culture on individuals or groups of students. This teacher will frequently give students a special role in planning and fulfilling their own multifaceted learning projects and will act in an advice-giving role. This is another student-centered style whereby the teacher places much concern for learning on students.
Needs based on different situations in the classroom and of students with different backgrounds can also be met with the use of varied methods of assessment. This enables teachers to select from a broad range of different tools to help students reach their learning goals. Past research has indicated that there are many problems associated with teachers’ classroom assessment practices. These include teachers’ lack of an adequate knowledge base involving the basic testing and measurement concepts (Stiggins, 2005), limited teacher training in assessment and failure of teachers to apply and adhere to measurement guidelines they learned in measurement courses. On the other hand, teachers who develop useful assessments, provide corrective instruction, and give students second chances to demonstrate success which can improve their teaching and assist students to discover.