For Gibbard, a norm is a significant kind of a psychological state of the mind, which is not fully understandable for us. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the problem with Gibbard’s acceptance of a norm and being in the grip of a norm. According to Gibbard, to judge that x is morally wrong is to express acceptance of a system of norms which permit feeling guilt for x-ing and resentment towards those who x. He wants to distinguish between accepting a norm and being in the grip of a norm. For Gibbard, the psychological state of the mind is involved in a accepting a norm, the animal system and normative system.
This report will address the ethical principles that Milgram 's study covered poorly and how they could be modified to improve the study. Two ethical principles not covered adequately in the study are right to withdraw, and deception. Additionally, the ethical principle
A basic principle of neuroscience is that the brain is not composed of separate areas that work individually in different situations, but that every part of the brain, specialized in a certain thought process, is connected to every other part. Pillay believes that these connections sometimes undermine our desire to do good, and points out specifically the fear and craving areas of the brain, closely connected to the “moral” part of the brain. If we look at things like infidelity and prejudice, we can see how fear disrupts our “innate” sense of morality, even if we don’t want it to. Being afraid of losing a relationship may make a person have an affair; being afraid of a certain race or group may make a person be prejudiced against them. She also mentions a recent study, that “showed that the brain's accountant on the left side is involved in forgiveness, but like the centers for morality, fear, and craving, this region is also not independent of the desire to punish or anger centers of the brain” (Pillay).
Impact of sexual abuse on children David Finkelhor and Angela Browne came up with a model where they suggested a conceptualization of the impact of sexual abuse. They came up with a four trauma causing factors which included traumatic sexualization, betrayal, powerlessness and stigmatization. The dynamics altered children’s cognitive and emotional orientation to the world. The dynamic of stigmatization tend to distort children’s sense of self worth and value, powerlessness distorts a child’s ability to control their lives, thus these distortions may result in some of the behavioral problems commonly seen in victims of child sexual abuse. (Finkelhor & Browne, 1985) 2.4.1Traumatic sexualization This refers to the development in which a child’s
We need to know that using self-handicapping too much is not good as it can lead to disadvantages and can affect self-esteem. Another reason this topic interests me is because I want to know whether individuals with low or high self-esteem use self-handicapping more. Self-handicapping is one of the strategy of impression management besides ingratiation. Impression Management defined as an attempt by people to get others see them the way they want to be seen. In other words, people pursuit to control or influence the perceptions of others about a person, event or object.
Therefore, we understand that and also Smith (cited in Wilterdink,2015) claims that since behavior is mediated through audiences’ own moral compassion, they can satisfy by looking at the characters who can make morally spiteful decisions. Interpreting the repressed emotions inside of the audiences, these characters can not only be loved but also they are sympathized with because they see the repressed emotions inside of the
Psychological maltreatment is a pattern of psychically destructive behaviors such as rejection, isolation, terrorizing, ignoring, and corrupting the child. Psychological maltreatment hinders development of healthy self-esteem, the ability to obtain and maintain healthy intimacy and relationships, and development of social competence. (p.197) In order to prove psychological maltreatment the worker must observe components of identifiable parental behavior that creates demonstrable harm to the child implying a causal link between parental behavior and harm to the child. Due to societal views and norms detecting psychological abuse due to parental behaviors is difficult because the punishment is considered socially normal and acceptable.
The tendency of an individual to exert disobedient behaviour depends on dispositional attribution. Thus, dispositional attribution or internal attribution is characterized as an assumption that the behaviour of an individual is caused by the person’s internal characteristics rather than external factors (“Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology”). On the other hand, looking at studies that portray a contradicting argument are essential in constituting a holistic view on the concept of obedience. Thus, individuals are often encouraged to disobey certain orders, when one sees other people denying to obey an authority figure. This assumption is indicated in the study of Milgram (1974) where in one of the variations of the experiment, the
Therefore, it would be unfair to give somebody suffering from some degree of mental deficiency the same punishment as a person who is of sound mind. Further research into the biological approach to criminal behaviour could improve how we perceive a criminal. Another limitation of the biological approach to criminality is it is difficult to monitor children to see if they grow up to commit crimes such as serial
These harms are: (a) harms to certain individuals which consist in their coming to have false beliefs as a result of those acts of expression; (b) harmful consequences of acts performed as a result of those acts of expression, where the connection between the acts of expression and the subsequent harmful act consists merely in the fact that the act of expression led the agents to believe (or increased their tendency to believe) these acts to be worth performing” (Scanlon. 213). We can see the influence of Mill’s Harm Principle which states that the only justification for intervening or restricting the actions of an individual is to prevent harm to others (Mill. 94). Another important concept is Scanlon’s description of the interests of the various stakeholders in the right to expression; these incudes participant interests which is to speak to and bring something to the attention of a wide audience, audience interests include