The normative theories are the branch of philosophy that studies ethical behavior. The major normative theories are egoism, utilitarianism, Kantianism and virtue ethics. Egoism and Utilitarianism are strongly related they lie under consequentialist theories. From its name, consequentialist theories demonstrate that the action depends on its consequence. The difference between the two is that egoism focuses on self-interest, while utilitarianism addresses maximum happiness to everyone (Sansbury, Barry and Shaw, 2013).
Utilitarianism can be further broken down into two distinct branches: act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act-Utilitarianism, also known as classic utilitarianism, holds that we ought to do the act with the best consequences in terms of the most people. For classic utilitarians, the value that is to be maximized is pleasure-that is what has intrinsic value. On the other hand, pain is dis-valued and is considered a basic bad. The greatest happiness principle says that actions are right in proportion that they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the opposite of happiness.
Ethical egoism is when individuals act in their own self-interests and crate situations in a way that pertain to one’s own benefit. There are three different types of egoisms, Individual, personal and universal ethical egoism. Individual egoism states that everyone ought to act in my own best self-interest which focuses on how other people treat them and will appear in a sort of way to get what they desire. Personal ethical egoism states that one ought to act in their own self-interests yet make no claims on what others should do. An example of personal egoism is when a group of 6 peers get together to come up with an activity to do, due to the even number of people one person suggests a game of volleyball and one person refuses to cooperate because it is not within their interest to play volleyball.
Respect: Even though Patients are hard to deal with on duty, nurses have to provide care with respect. Patients have to be treated the way the nurses would like to be treated. It 's crucial for the nurse to keep in mind that the patient is in clinical setting take delivery of care. A professional nurse is organized to treat all patients with the respect and dignity. Caring is a foundational value in the nursing profession.
Act Utilitarianism, being a hedonistic view, promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest good, however Rule Utilitarianism is based on rules of thumb, which may contradict themselves. For example, Rule Utilitarianism makes progress in the sense of being moral saints. This is based on how it takes “into account the effects of the rule or practice itself” (pg. 137). Those whose needs have been met who want to give a portion of their income to the less fortunate promote the greater good.
Hutcheson and Shaftesbury believed that human nature contained all it needed to make moral decisions, along with inclinations to be moral. Moral sense is a kind of sense because, like external senses, it is common to all mankind. It is independent of our will and its deliverances are not conclusions mediated by premises. In particular it is not mediated by considerations of personal advantage or harm. It is on account of this feature that we are able to admire actions that took place in remote times and regions and even actions that are contrary to our own interests .
Aristotle conceives ethical theories in his time. He divulge the ideas of the goods and morale by studying the nature of arête (“virtue”).Proposing that we humans of the world is oblige to do what is right,do our duties and moral for our humanity . Aristotle search for the good is a search for the highest good and highest good has three characteristic: it is not desirable for the sake of other good and all other good is desirable for sake. ” What we need, is a proper appreciation of the way in which such goods as friendship, pleasure, virtue, honor and wealth fit together as a whole”(Aristotle)
So they can choose. The way that Rawls distinguishes the rationality from reasoning, points to the idea of consideration of humans as social beings, who are neither egoistic nor altruistic, but rather seeking a risk-averse positioning of themselves in the best way possible. At the end of the day, we are individuals, seeking rights,
In Transcendentalist thought the self centers itself in reality; every object external produces of the self that takes its reality from our inner selves. Self-reliance thus refers to the way the natural world and humankind rely on oneself to exist. Thoreau supports the transcendentalist ideal of living simply throughout his essay, Walden. The ideals of transcendentalism refer to the thought of living simply by omitting all of the unnecessary items that are not essential to our survival.
Like Bentham and Epicurean, Mill thinks that the Greatest Happiness Principle ought to be the foundation of our societies. The Greatest Happiness Principle is having most people in a society feeling the greatest amount of happiness (Pg. 88). However, unlike Bentham and Epicurean, Mill believes that the Greatest Happiness Principle should include quality with quantity (Pg. 91).
Philosophy 100 Steven Phan Kant, Immanuel: Grounding of Metaphysics of Moral 10-19-15 The first of Kant’s essay about metaphysics on morality, he revealed to us that it is one’s sense of duty, which makes it a moral action. He also explained what logic is as it pertains understanding the most reasonable course to take, and as well as how it can only be a pure concept as it does not derive from experiences. Taking all of this into account, in the second part of Kant’s essay, he start with the idea that there is now way to give an example of a moral action outside of it being of duty.
In both modern society and the world set forth in the beginning Ayn Rand 's The Fountainhead, altruism and selflessness are praised as accepted ideals while independence and selfishness are abhorred. This twisted idea of morality is challenged by the protagonist of The Fountainhead, Howard Roark. Though selfishness can be broadly defined and can be harmful at times, Howard Roark exhibits a specific type of selfishness that does not seek to harm others, but to simply preserve the person 's ego and personal pursuit of success. The best way to define the nature and effectiveness of Howard Roark 's selfishness is through examining his interactions with other major characters and comparing their egos, integrity, and approaches to achievement. Peter Keating is an interesting character in that he tries to be selfish, but he has no actual sense of self.
Ethical Principles Ethical Frameworks for Decision-Making in Nursing Practice and Research: An Integrative Review. Ethics is the expected standards of moral behavior of a particular group. Nurses have been viewed as the most honest and ethical professionals in the United States. Nursing ethics refers to the ethical issues that occurs in nursing practice. It is governed by the American Nurses Association(ANA), which holds nurses accountable for their ethical conduct.
Ethics is the sole base of distinguishing between right and wrong; however, right and wrong are controversial issues that usually are determinate through other words like good and bad. It is clearly evident that the context within a sentence can determine the actions done were good or bad. For example, Chaloner stated, “It was so good of you to bake me a cake”, but there is a possibility that the ingredients in the cake were bad so the context indicated good but in reality is was not a good deed. Laws are usually based on good ethics; therefore, it is sometimes easier to make decisions because certain laws require certain actions to be completed.