In judging someone whether good or bad is by knowing that person’s impacts or contributions to the whole society his situated in. in short, moral evaluation in terms of virtues and vices. It is his approach that sets apart from egoism that is picked up by Hume and Hutcheson. Francis Hutcheson would adopt Shaftesbury’s moral sense approach and he also gave importance to moral evaluation in actions. In judging actions, the number of persons that the action brought out happiness is of importance.
I argue that living spontaneously is not pessimistic. In Mencian view on moral cultivation, it is optimistic that human nature is good, and everyone can be as virtuous as sages. Mencius 6A/7 states that we are the same kind as sages, the only difference is that the sages have already got what the heart is approved of. Mencius 6A/6 and 7A/3 also states that we can get it (morality) if we seek it. Mencius 7A/3 and 7B/24 explicitly argue that morality is natural to us, hence we should treat it as fate, which we cannot control.
What is basic to morality is the inclination for benevolence—an integral part of moral evaluations. Hutcheson set out to prove the existence of natural feelings, like benevolence, in order to show that not every action was performed out of self-interest. One of Hutcheson’s concerns were that one’s natural benevolence could get caught up with one’s selfish nature, although he hoped people could realize that natural benevolence will allow one to see the higher character and thus one could understand and encourage what is best for everyone. Hutcheson’s moral sense theory helped to conceptually evade the problems that stem from a stringent doctrine of egoism. He claimed that it is natural for one to want good things for others.
There are two ethical imperatives according to Kant that guide our actions which consists of what is the best for everyone equally and what preserves the need of everyone equally. So the whole idea of Kantian ethics is to elevate reason to its actual purpose and lower any role of emotion in ethical decision making. For example take telling the truth we should tell the truth, that is our duty. It is also logical. if we said anything else it would be illogical and lead to chaos.
Duty as in that we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome. This theory asserts that an action is considered 'morally good ' because of some characteristic of the action itself, not because the result of the action is good. Expressions such as "virtue is its own reward" and Duty for duty 's sake" are used to attest to the believe that in deontological ethics, some acts are morally obligatory regardless of their consequences for human welfare. Since utilitarian 's believe that all actions must seek to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people, this would still apply even if that act harms an innocent person. A simple example would be that if a surgeon could save three lives by harvesting the organs of one healthy person, then this is entirely acceptable as it 's helping the greater number.
In all theories of justice, the reciprocity, necessity, cooperation are the most important concepts defining the idea of justice and they provide me a solid base for rejecting the rationality assumption. The relation between functionings, capabilities and agency seems to be very important in order understand the human motivation that cannot be taught separately from the social relations.If good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable “beings and doings”, it is then important to focus on what people can ‘actually do’, namely their substantive freedoms and more importantly their autonomy degrees and fields that can be thought only in relational terms. In this sense, I find very useful to think with Bourdieu’s concepts in order to understand the framing of what one can ‘actually do’, because although these theories are useful to gain a normative framework, Bourdieu’s analysis are more practical (Calhoun & Wacquant, 2002) and aim to understand the processes and experiences of inequalities. The capabilities (which I find very interesting conceptual and also methodological tool) which makes me think about the concept of habitus, are shaped by not only laws and policies, but also by a set of norms and values that are legitimated and reproduced in discourse, perception and
Altruism theory can basically be defined as an act that an individual performs, in order to benefit someone else. Altruism can also be known as Ethical Altruism. Furthermore, this specific theory speaks about the outstanding deeds that an individual would undertake to help and benefit someone else, even if it requires the sacrifice of self-interest. The action that the individual would tackle would be considered morally right as the result would benefit the recipient than the person actually conducting the action (Mastin, 2008). Majority of the time these actions that are performed by individuals are not only about doing good for others but also to protect them from being harm or getting injured in a certain situation (Rational Wiki,
Happiness is measured equally between individuals when assessing the consequences; however, if the happiness of two individuals is in question, then violating the rights of one individual is permissible if it increases the overall pleasure. According to Kant, the moral rules are unbreakable commands of God. Moral ‘oughts’ are unconditional and should be followed whether the individual benefits from them or
With the help of this analogy, we can say that we act morally if we stand on something that what we think is morally right regardless of the situation. On the other hand, we act ethically if we do something that is right, and that idea of righteousness is based on other’s perspective. This is the reason why it is prone to
In other words, a mutually advantageous hypothetical contract must be rationally justified. According to Hobbes, something can be called good for people only if it is an object of their rational desire. Nonetheless, Hobbes worked with a rather simplistic understanding of rationality. The contemporary contractarians from advocating Hobbesian conception of practical reason borrow a more complex conception of rationality from rational choice theory. Accordingly, their conception of rationality is formed from preferences, utility and maximization.