Recent scandals in government, business, sport and even religious organisations have reaffiliated the importance of ethical leaders in our current day and age. Brown, Treviño and Harrison (2005) summarised ethical leaders as people who are considerate, truthful, principled individuals. They are balanced and fair decision makers who set clear ethical standards and communicate openly with their followers. Finally, they are proactive role models for ethical conduct as their deeds reflect their own ethical principles and values. Social learning theory maintains that most individuals learn and mimic credible role models (Kohlberg, 1969; Treviño, 1986) and it is upon this theory which Brown and Treviño (2006) motivate that ethical leaders are the most likely sources of guidance because of their overall behaviour.
Values are general principles used to guide actions and people use it to rationalise their behaviours. Different societies can value success, but
In particular they are inclined to see their interest as clashing, incompatible. This supports the idea of the ‘Fixed-Pie Belief’. The negotiations results will depend on whether parties have or do not have similar interests and whether or not the issues are or are not compatible with each other. Another implication which was found as a result from the experiments shows that biased conflict perceptions are quite strongly swayed by interests which relate to oneself. It was proven also that issues can be misconstrued to be ones of too great importance and one may then overestimate the amount of conflict.
Essentially for something of this gravity to occur something has to go really poorly. This thing is reason. Reason becomes corrupted. Both Dr. Crockett and St. Thomas Aquinas provide some guidance on how this occurs. They both point to the corruption of reason.
He is defending a strong view of moral objectivity. Finnis broadly endorses Lon Fuller’s eight requirements of ‘the inner morality of law’ through his conceptualisation of the ‘rule of law’. Laws should be prospective and not retroactive; possible to comply with; promulgated; clear; coherent; stable enough that people can use the law as a guide; the making of new laws should be guided effectively within the
In addition to the impact of cultural and family backgrounds on morality, situational ethics also contributes to morality in the form of different circumstances and a person 's cognitive abilities. In Trevinos study about the model of cognitive moral development, he explored “how people determined what was right or wrong in a particular situation” (Trevino 604). This model focuses on the “reasons an individual uses to justify a moral choice, rather than the decision itself” (Trevino 604). It is also concluded that “[o]ur biology does not prescribe the specific forms our morality takes” (Singer 337). An experiment in which situational ethics are present would be the Trolley Problem.
Being able to trust people is extremely important to our well-being and by committing to an act-utilitarian case by case evaluation method, people become less reliable and trustworthy. Rule-utilitarianism avoids this issue as they are are committed to rules which generate positive expectation effects which tells us how people are likely to behave. While rule-utilitarians do not deny that there are people who are not trustworty, it is clear that their moral code condemns violations of trust as wrongful rather than the act-utilitarian approach which supports the moral view that has the effect of undermining trust. We should, 'therefore accept rules against…breaking promises and violating people's rights because following them as a regular practice promotes general welfare' (Rachels,
Personality traits appear to play an influential role in the development of decision making. Personalities that are more negative are traditionally associated with greater distress while more outgoing and positive personalities generally experience positive outcomes in decision making (Duggan et al., 1995).Various decision-making activities are potentially the main theme to influence the judge's personality, attitudes, and past experience or other factors, that have been shown to operate in other areas of human behavior. While the personality of judges also plays a significant role in the powerful decision-making process (Radin, 1999). As Justice Systems occupy a central position among public and government level. The reason is that an independent
The argument from queerness puts it clear that if objective values exist, then they would be relations of a very strange sort and of which if we are aware of them there would be some special faculty of intuition or moral perception which will be totally different from how we know everything else. According to Mackie (653), although intuition has long been out of favor, it is more important to note that the objectivist view of values commits fully to the central thesis of intuitionism. Despite the fact that people have believed that moral problems can be solved or moral judgments can be made by just sitting and having an ethical intuition is simply a travesty of actual moral thinking. This being a real complex process requires some inputs of the distinctive sort which are either form of arguments or premises or both. One way to bring out this queerness is to have a look at Plato’s Forms that gives a dramatic picture of what objective values would be and also the argument of Hume on reason referring it to a stage of all sorts of knowing and also reasoning.
However, resembling relativism, flaws abound. Utilitarianism is a good example, suggesting that on any occasion the right thing to do is whatever will produce the most happiness overall. This is flawed because there are bound to be persons whose happiness is not derived from the cultures happiness, and in fact may even be subjected to pain if the largest amount of happiness is produced? Is one man’s suffering a fair price for a majorities happiness? Is this even ethically good?
Desire satifacationist has many problems with happiness in the sense that desires can be based on false beliefs, disappointment, impoverished desires. The first one deals with false beliefs and can a person be really happy with false beliefs. According to Shafer-Landau “Fulfilling those desires based on false belief need not improve our welfare,” (p 47). If the false desires do not fulfill or improve our welfare, then why would you continue to peruse these false beliefs? Another problem is disappointing, with the desired certification.