Literature Review 2.1 Inrtoduction Individuals fluctuate impressively in moral thinking. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is the most compelling and broadly investigated hypothesis of moral reasoning and moral development. Indeed, even today more than a quarter century after Kohlberg’s demise, there is significant research directed using his theory. A lot of this impact can be ascribed to this current hypothesis’s focal and much tried supposition that a person’s ethical thinking will foresee moral conduct. To catch such individual contrasts in moral improvement, Kohlberg’s hypothesis characterized moral development into three levels: pre-conventional level (persuaded without anyone else’s input intrigue); Conventional
In chapter four of the book Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice authored by Joycelyn Pollock it discusses this very topic in great detail. On page 92 of the book the author presents a theory called Kohlberg’s Moral Stages to the reader. These stages are made up of the pre-conventional level which would be egoistic, the next level is the conventional level which is fitting into society, and lastly you have post-conventional which is transcending society. Each of those three levels is broken up into two different stages. Each of these three levels and the two levels in them involve qualitative differences to show the way in which people view the
Moreover, connections will be made between the study findings and Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Some high school students who participated in the Josephson Institute (2012) survey exhibited glimpses of post-conventional morality based on Kohlberg’s stages of moral development.
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has motivated researchers to debate and criticise the theory based on its lack of explaining the roles of culture and family in moral development (Santrock, 2015). These criticisms form arguments against Kohlberg’s claim that his theory is applicable universally applicable to all children of all diversities (Matlala, 2011). Kohlberg, as cited in Santrock (2015), does not ascertain the difference between moral reasoning and moral behaviour. Yet, critics have stated that there is a difference. If someone’s reasoning or thinking is moral, it does not necessarily mean that their actions reflect that thought process (Santrock, 2015).
2.8 GILLIGAN’S THEORY Caorl Gilligan was one of the students of Kohlberg. She criticizes Kohlberg’s theory on the basis of assumption made by both genders (male and female) towards morality. On the basis of her studies and researches, she criticizes Kohlberg’s theory which is only based on male prejudice and his studies are of typically male dominant with general rules and rights. She recommends that men are always more interested in resolving moral dilemmas by applying most important moral set of laws. But women always want to keep the personal relationship primary with all those involved in a situation and they always give consideration only on the conditions responsible for that serious condition and not on general moral rules.
Kohlberg considers these differing levels and stages as separate moral philosophies and distinct views of the social-moral world Kohlberg’s approach to moral education was through his experimental “just community” high schools, founded in 1974. These “cluster” schools were community based and upheld principles of justice and care. These principles, according to Kohlberg and Hersh (1977), are central to both moral education and to the development of the six stages of moral judgment. Kohlberg and Hersh (1977) define the concept of stages of cognitive moral development as the structure of one’s reasoning and it implies the following
Then there is Conventional which has Conformity/Interpersonal Accords and Authority/Social Order. Finally, there is the Post-Conventional stage which has Social Contract and Universal Ethics Principles. People cannot go to a stage without passing all of the stages before it. Antigone is in the Social Contract stage, which means that “Morally right and legally
“Kohlberg’s Moral Stages” are arranged in three different levels of morality, which specify each level. Morals are the characters thoughts, actions or reactions to things in a certain way, which are demonstrated by Abigail reflecting stage two, Judge John reflecting stage four, and John Proctor
Mitzi Magdalena Mennen C. Tesalona 4TE2 KOHLBERG SIX IDENTIFIABLE STAGES Lawrence Kohlberg, a cognitive-developmental psychologist, proposed that the development of moral reasoning is characterized by a sequence of six stages grouped into three general levels of morality: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Enumerated below are the lists and describes Kohlberg 's three levels and six stages of moral reasoning. Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality Pre-conventional morality is seen mostly in preschool, elementary, some junior and few high school students. Most at nine year olds and younger, some over that age. Those ages don’t have a personal code of morality.
Describe Lawrence Kohlberg, a child psychologist who studied the theory of moral development, similar to Piaget and Skinner's theory, researched and examined young children by applying reward and punishment in his experimental scenarios (2014). Kohlberg was known for the “Heinz dilemma” which analyzes moral arrangement of young children by examining the way they think and evaluate pros and cons of real-life circumstances (2014). Kohlberg researched three levels: The first one is the “Preconventional Level” (2014). At these level children will follow rules so that they avoid any punishment from authority figures (2014). Knowing the differences between good and bad behavior helps children to understand the consequences when it’s related to their