They are often compelled to think, feel and behave differently. In contrast, the autonomous and controlled motivation can drive to demotivation which means absence of motivation. Deci and Ryan (2008), introduced the theoretical assumptions of intrinsic motivation based on the studies made by Bowlby in 1969, White in 1975, and DeCharms in 1984. The writers state that, to feel intrinsic motivated, he/she should be provided with autonomy, competence and sense of belonging as well as autonomy, competence, and sense of belonging are the main psychological needs for the orientation of development of self-determined motivation. Above given three needs are universal and they are found in people from different cultures.
INTRODUCTION Emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior. Emotion includes three things 1• Conscious experience (feelings) 2• expressions which can be seen by others 3• actions of the body (physiological arousal). The part of brain known as the limbic system is highly involved in emotion. One structure in the limbic system, called the amygdale, plays a particularly important role in regulating emotion. "An emotion is a complex psychological state that involves three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.
Typically, self-efficacy is heightened in a positive emotional state and dropped in a negative emotional state. These impacts are affected by four mental processes: affective, cognitive; motivational; and selection Bandura (1997). Motivation can influence efficacy through the establishment of goals, while the ability to control negative emotional judgments and to enhance positive thoughts also has a strong impact on efficacy beliefs. Cognitive processes can heighten or restrain the performance on the task through self-appraisal of one’s capabilities. And lastly, selection refers to the choices persons make based on their efficacy perspectives.
Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985). In which, if this stability was disrupted then changes to their actions must occur in order for the dissonance created from their behaviors or attitudes to be restored. The uncomfortable feelings produced as a result of dissonance cause alteration in the person’s beliefs which aid in the relief of uncomfortable feelings created
1. What is implicit personality theory? This theory is a set of traditions that a person makes involving the correlations between personality traits such as widespread expectations of impression positively correlated with generosity, so that a person who is cold is viewed to be serious. It is often stated that implicit personality theories also include correlations between psychological and dimensions of impressions. Additionally, detailed patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person.
This process uses positive and negative reinforcement through behavior modification. Skinner had the view that even though there are many things going through our minds it is more productive for us to study a person's observable behavior. He believed that classical conditioning was much to simple of an approach. Skinner thought that we could understand behavior by studying the root causes of actions and their consequences. The idea is that a behavior that is followed up by unwanted consequences is not likely to be repeated.
. Edward Thorndike also contributed greatly to the basis of operant conditioning and help inspire Skinner to probe further into the theory. Thorndike’s main theory is called The Law and Effect. In essence of his theory states that a response which produces a satisfying effect to a situation is very likely to occur again. Responses with a negative effect in a situation is less likely to occur again.
The general attributional approach recognizes that humans try to make sense of their surroundings and themselves and that this sense-making activity is an important part of the social phenomena under asking questions and trying to find the truth. Attribution theories, very differently, are theories of more clearly stated or related. Even though explanations and feature guesses (trait) based on what you 've been told are occasionally related, they are clear/separate in many ways. Most theorist sort out explanations of success or failure using polarities of three characteristics that can help define personality: locus of control, stability and Controllability
Susan Folkman and Richard Lazarus (2000) define coping as "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as task or demanding. Simply put, coping is an activity we do to seek and apply solutions to stressful situations or problems that emerge because of our stressors. Actually, the term "coping" is more associated with "reactive coping", because in general, we see coping as a response to a stressor. On the other hand, there 's also what we call "proactive coping", wherein the coping response is aimed at preventing a possible encounter with a future
Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour. In operant conditioning, there are positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. Positive reinforcement are favourable events or outcomes that are given to the individual after the desired behaviour. This may come in the form of praise, rewards, etc. Negative reinforcement typically are characterized by the removal of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired behaviour.