Motivation Forces In Tourism

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Young travellers is a growth market in the global world (Richards and Wilson, 2003). World Tourism Organisation (2008) estimated the youth travel market worth US$136 billion in a year, which has 3-5% volume growth per year globally and the spending increased 8% a year. The Federation of International Youth Travel Organizations, a global trade association specialise in youth travel, serve more than 16 million young travellers a year and the annual turn-over generated more than 8 billion US dollars (Federation of International Youth Travel Organizations, 2001). In the Asia Pacific, Hong Kong is a well-developed tourist generating market. As Mok & Armstrong (1995, p.99) states, “overseas travel has become a way of life for many Hong
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These forces related to determine the selection of travel. Seeking force is finding the recreational opportunities for reward oneself on psychological level, and the escaping force is break out from the routine and stressful environment. Hence, a four dimensions of the Iso-Ahola’s model had presented because it believed that people who seek for leisure or tourist activities are motivated by these forces. They are seeking for personal intrinsic rewards and/or interpersonal intrinsic rewards, escape from the personal environment and/or the interpersonal environment. It is similar to the anomie and ego-enhancement motives, which were suggested by Dann (1977). A few years later, Mannell and Iso-Ahola (1987) had further developed on two motivation forces as they indicated that more should be represent in escape-oriented, instead of a seeking-oriented activity under most circumstances for most people on tourism. There is simply that the people who take the vacation motivated by escape force is to get away from their pressure life and a few participants felt leisure activities or seeking intrinsic rewards are less important to them. There are some research studies on the Asian students travel motivation. The most important motivation resulted in the knowledge factors, which were the seeking force. The other high rated factors are followed by leisure and escape personal-social and physical pressure (Wang & Walker, 2010; Kim & Jogaratnam, 2003). These showed the use of two motivation forces. There are summaries from the previous studies on travel motivation by McIntosh and Goeldner (1984). They observed that the motivation can sort into four categories, which are physical motivators, cultural motivators, interpersonal motivators and status and prestige motivators. Physical motivators are the motivation that connected to a

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