Motivation-Hygiene Theory And Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theories on Motivation
The two motivation theories which will be incorporated into the strategies are Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (1959,1966) was the result of a study on job satisfaction of workers in several settings including educational settings as well as industrial settings to determine whether intrinsic factors do contribute towards job satisfaction. The two factor theory claims that certain elements within the job content i.e- intrinsic as well as its environment i.e- extrinsic, can influence the lack of satisfaction. According to Herzberg, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the same
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company policies and administration
2. supervision of employees
3. working condition
4. salary and;
5. interpersonal relationship

Some also includes;
6. status
7. personal life

Herzberg found that the hygiene factors do not lead to motivation however without them, employees would feel dissatisfied for example, an employee might not feel motivated by the amount of pay he or she receives but might be dissatisfied by the inadequate amount of financial rewards. In other words, motivational factors can only cause satisfaction or an absence of satisfaction. (Graham & Messner, 1998)

The second finding of the research concluded the factors that has the ability to motivate an employee. These are referred to as “satisfiers”as they prompt the employees to achieve higher levels of performance. These factors can cause dissatisfaction when absent, or no dissatisfaction when present. These motivating factors include:-
1. achievement
2. recognition
3. work itself
4. responsibility
5. opportunity for advancement
6. growth Figure 1: Herzberg’s theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of
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Job motivation and work satisfaction of employees can have either a negative or a positive impact on their performance. To validate this theory, countless researchers have conducted studies on the relationship of motivation and job satisfaction with job performances. Springer (2011) concluded that motivation and job satisfaction are factors that can be used to act as a predictor of employee’s efficiency within the organization as work performance is significantly affected by both factors. In other words, a working condition with greater level of motivation and an increase of employee’s satisfaction with their work leads to quality performance and
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