In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to Herzberg, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”. Herzberg classified these job factors into two categories- a. Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term.
The theory argues that extrinsic factors such as job security and compensation produce dissatisfaction while intrinsic factors such as need for recognition and achievement bring about job satisfaction (Nujjoo & Meyer, 2012). However, it has been highly criticized as being limited by its methodology; it was said that his link between satisfaction and productivity is only an assumption because no total measure of satisfaction was used. The argument states that though an individual may dislike certain aspects of his job, he may still find it acceptable. There are other approaches on motivation such as the Instinct theory as well as the Incentive theory of
The BPO sector plays an essential role as keystone of the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different BPO companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of age, sex differences, work experience and Designation on the employee’s attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that Career path, rewards and recognition, employee’s appraisal and company’s policies are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction.
There are several theories that were invented as theories that analysis the prevalence of employee and job satisfaction. Since well employee satisfaction is influenced by being satisfied in the workplace, the theories should cover both concepts in order to elaborate more on both concepts. The following are some of the theories invented to elaborate the relationship between both concepts and they are as follows: Affective Event Theory According to Thompson and Phua (2001), cited by Ali, Edwin and Tirimba (2015: 419) the affective event theory was developed by Psychologist Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano to explain how emotions and moods influence job satisfaction. The theory explains the linkages between employees’ internal influences
Herzberg created his theory of Motivators and Hygiene factors based on all these findings which is also known as the two factor theory. Both these factors can motivate employees but they work for different reasons. Hygiene factors are likely to cause only short-term satisfaction to the employees while motivators tend to cause longer-term
Needham (1999) argued that the Maslow's hierarchy needs theory is too rigid because differs workers on different position have different needs and priorities, furthermore, they may have different motivators impact on their performance. Herzberg’s two factor theory Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory (Herzberg 1987), assumes that workers are motivated by two sets of factors: motivation and hygiene. The motivation factors such as: achievement, participation, recognition, involvement, delegation and autonomy, if they are met will motivate employees too. In contrast to the factors of motivation, hygiene factors such as salary, working conditions, policies and administration are not met lead to dissatisfaction in workers (Saiyadain 2009). John (2007) argues that a large responsibility for the creation and handle motivation systems of employees rests on the shoulders of business leaders.
On other hands, the employee’s well-being also is the part of the interest for employers who was invest the resources on the employees and trying to generate the productivity, profits and return of investments (Harter, Schmidt, & Keyes, 2003). In particulars, the researchers have reveal that the relationships between job satisfactions is related to employee’s performance (Thoresen, Bono, & Patton 2001). The higher the employees wellbeing the higher the cooperative in the workplaces, and become more productivity and high performance (Spectr’s, 1997). The ERI model was explained that, the high effort and low reward employees were experiencing the emotional exhaustion and physical symptoms and job dissatisfaction. In other words, when the employees have controlled the reward and effort it means that the efforts (psychological demands) were the powerful predictors for employee’s emotional exhaustion and physical symptoms.
While there are many reasons people are satisfied with their jobs national studies show that money and fringe benefits would not be the main reason and actually only affects job satisfaction to a point. Employees tend to put more emphasis on the quality of their position, the support they receive, and actually feeling like they contribute to the success of the organization. (Robbins & Judge, 2009, p. 5) Many different work-related factors can affect the level of job satisfaction such as the job duties, how much an employee is paid, whether or not there are opportunities for employees to advance, co-workers, and bosses, to name a few. (Robbins & Judge, 2009, p.84) Job satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction is a part of all workplaces. It can affect productivity, morale, and overall customer satisfaction.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the study Job satisfaction has been said to lead to qualitative and quantitative improvement in job performance (Ganguly, 2010). Therefore, it is important for organization to find factor that can lead to job satisfaction. In addition, according to Hasan Ali Al-Zu’bi, (2010), one of the key variables that impact the performance of organization is the employee’s job performance and satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be defined as the feelings of employees whether they like or dislike the different aspect of their job experiences in connection to previous experiences (Mohammad, Mumtazah, Jariah & Aminah, 2013). Meanwhile, Ganguly (2010) stated that job satisfaction involves a collection of numerous attitudes
Employees are more concerned with work in an environment they enjoy. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with the supervisor, quality of physical environment in which one works and the degree of fulfillment in one’s work. Positive attitudes towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where-as negative attitudes towards job have been defined variously from time to time. In short, job satisfaction is determined by a person’s attitude towards job. Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job-their evaluation may rest largely upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these