Generally, there are two important factors that make students want to study namely motivation and rewards. Motivation is required to study, and after they have that, they need something to be given to them once they study - which is what is called the reward. These two factors play a very important role in assisting students improve in the learning process. Motivation is what energizes, guides, and nurtures behaviour. It helps students get going and directs them in one direction.
They are: the need to know, a sense of autonomy, the importance of life experiences and knowledge, the readiness to learn, the need for practical and applicable learning, and internal motivation. The need to know refers to the understanding of knowing how and why to create a valuable lesson. Having feedback from reflection allows the learner to lean towards new learning and at the same time realize that learning never stops. A sense of autonomy refers to a functional need of a change in behaviour, developing a need for autonomy, structure for self growth, and self directed learning. The importance of life experiences and knowledge means that adults wants to apply their knowledge to what they do and to be acknowledged for it.
How people process and store data is essential during the time spent learning. Blueprint - An inner learning structure. New data is contrasted with existing psychological structures. Construction might be consolidated, stretched out or adjusted to suit new data. The information frameworks of psychological structures are effectively developed by learners in view of previous subjective structures on account of learning dynamic digestion and convenience of new data to existing intellectual structures however in the event of inspiring learners to set their own particular objectives and propel themselves to learn.
Motivation is always being considered as a prompt for people to do something that is the reason why some educational psychologists start discussing on how motivation is important in human learning, especially for intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, as these two are functioning in two different ways. Before talking about ideas of which motivation method is more important in human learning, it is better to make the twos definitions clear first. According to the Motivation Theories of Maslow , intrinsic motivation definitely represents fulfilling the “inside needs” of a person in order to motivate him/her to perform a thing better, it could be something fulfilling and rewarding to the person. In the other hand, extrinsic motivation means to satisfy some wants and desires of the person, it could be money and status, which belong to the lower part of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As human learning involves in education, personal development, schooling, or training , both of the motivation methods are also useful to human beings.
The attention of students can be increased by using models that are viewed as competent, prestigious and similar to themselves. Through purposeful use of rewards and punishments, the motivational aspects of observational learning may be supported. These consequences, further, should shape the behavior of students when they are provided either to the learner or to a model. What basic assumptions/principles of this theory are relevant to instructional design? Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly.
Peer assessment aids students to develop their judgment skills, critiquing abilities, and self-awareness. They learn to be more responsible while striving to figure out their points of strength and weakness. Peer assessment lifts the role and status of the students from passive learners to active leaners. What are the advantages of peer assessment? There are many advantages for peer assessment.
Indeed, teamwork is now a trend in the education it helps as benefit to the world it help the students to explore their abilities and skills to develop a better outcome. Moreover, it requires skill that is needed to foster learning. It involves the following foremost is listening,
1. Describe the essential aspects of a self-directed, intrinsically motivated, active learner? A self-directed, intrinsically motivated, active learner possesses numerous essential features that help one to excel on their studies. Being a intrinsically motivated, one will continuously push themselves in desire to achieve the goal that they have set on their own. Being self-directed, one would be able to take initiative of their own goal and become self-discipline to learn with enthusiasm to fulfill their curiosity.
Likewise, Brown (2004) states “assessment is an integral part of teaching-learning cycle” (p. 16). There are a number of reasons for assessment the knowledge of which would provide insights into the way teachers employ given methods which are appropriate for their pedagogic purposes. Race, Brown, and Smith (2004) suggest the most common reasons for assessing students. They remark that assessment provides students with constructive feedback, thereby resulting in their improvement. It also raises learners’ awareness about their current abilities and achievements.
Structural knowledge is an intermediate type of knowledge that mediates the transition of declarative in to procedural knowledge and facilitate the application of procedural knowledge (Diekhoff, 1983). Structural knowledge is a knowledge of relationships between concepts in a content area which is essential for comprehension and problem solving that lead to learning. There exist different learning strategies to assist learners acquire structural knowledge. One way is through providing graphic techniques which are ' 'spatial representation of structural knowledge in content area ' '. The graphic techniques including networks, pattern notes, semantic maps and graphic organizers which are differ in appearance, types of relationships, and the use and types of labels used to name concept relationships (Beissner et al, 1993, p.