Read Chap 4 - 6 You must submit written responses to these questions. 1. Assume that health production is subject to diminishing returns and that each unit of healthcare employed entails a constant rate of iatrogenic (medically caused) disease. Would the product of health function eventually bend downward? Explain.
Identification of Concepts/Theories 1. Concepts • Public Health Management can defined as set of activities which are planning (very important) and decision making, organizing (continous) ,leading and controlling that are directed at an organization resources such as human, financial, physical and information. This concept of management helps us understand the structure and operations of the health system and provide an opportunity to manage the complex nature of the health systems and rationale for quality management of the needed resources. • The concept of strategic management which is a set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of an organization such as FHI360 etc which includes internal and external environment scanning; strategy formulation, strategy implementation and ;evaluation and control. The concept helps to
A Study of the District Health Information System in Mandera County, Kenya Study Justification Improvement in health is recognized as a central factor for development in poor countries. Public health decision making is critically dependent on accurate, timely and reliable information to improve development. To make decision-making possible, managers and policy makers need good information about the current situation of the health of the population. To acquiring good information, a well-functioning health information system (HIS) for gathering, processing, analyzing and using health information is needed (WHO, 2007). There is a widespread belief that most of the national and sub-national health information systems fail in providing much needed information support for evidence based health planning and interventions.
Abstract Survival analysis is normally used to describe the analysis of data that depend on the time between constant starting point until the occurrence of specific event or endpoint. There are certain aspects of the survival analysis data, such as censoring and non-normality, which can generate great difficulty when trying to analyze data using traditional statistical models. In this paper, the Kaplan-Meier estimator is used to estimate the survival function. Also Log-Rank test is used to compare between groups using the stages of the illness as a comparing factors. Finally, Cox’s regression model is one of the most applied methods in medical research, is used to determine the factors that affect the survival time and assess the relative
It focuses on the number of people exposed, and the potential for spread within the community to enable implementation of appropriate actions to prevent additional cases or recurrences of the disease. (Brownson, 2011) Application - Epidemiology provides useful scientific basis for prevention of diseases and injury and the promotion of health. (Soph.uab.edu, 2016) Roles of epidemiology Epidemiology is considered a tool for collecting data that enable public health surveillance, disease investigation, analytic studies and program evaluation. Public Health Surveillance Public health surveillance is essential for rapid detection investigation and identification of disease outbreaks. The common source of surveillance data is reports of disease cases received from health-care providers and from communities.
For example, differences in mobility between elderly people and younger populations or differences in mortality rates between people from different social classes. Equality in health is about ensuring that poorer and vulnerable people in our communities have the opportunity and fair chance to reach the maximum health that they can achieve. For instance, when the patients are recovered and discharged , poor living environment may be a cause that makes the patient ill again. Just as mentioned above, Social conditions have a direct relationship with health. For instance, Wilkinson (1996) analyzes data of mortality and morbidity from several countries and finds that the widest gaps in health inequalities are found in countries that have the widest gaps in income.
It is well acknowledged today that many low-income countries will have considerable difficulties w.r.t healthcare services. The lack of adequate financial investment, the fragmentation of the delivery of health services, and reduced quality are considered key hindrances to the successful employment of health programs. For this reason, the core focus should be on aiding national and regional decision-makers and managers choose effective planned interventions. 2. Dimensions of Quality Any health organization should pursue to make developments in six areas or dimensions of quality.
Any material that is distributed must be easy to read and easy to understand. If a healthcare provider were to hand out a brochure regarding heart health that is difficult to understand for the reader or patient, they are likely to discard it without taking in the message that is trying to be relayed. Sadly, studies have shown that minorities from low income and poorly educated families are often the most likely to suffer from some sort of heart disease or cardiovascular condition. This same population is the one that is often plagued with low health literacy. Therefore, it so important to ensure that the material they are receiving is material they can
A public health issue that I would be most interested in when it comes to developing a public health campaign is the cost and stigma that is associated with mental health. Mental health is best defined as the experiencing of any problems that is related to ones social, emotional, and psychological well-being. Throughout a person’s life different events and experiences such as trauma and genetics can alter how someone can go about living their life. Other factors that also come into play is gender, race, social economic class, and religious beliefs. The need for this campaging is to bring about awareness and to start more conversations in efforts to make people feel comfortable when it comes to seeking help.
Leadership and governance (Governance and Health Care Financing) • To strengthen leadership and governance systems, in order to ensure highest standards of transparency and accountability at all levels. (National Health Strategic Plan 2006-10), (National Health Strategic Plan 2011-14) c) Explain how the four approaches of Public health could be used to attain the objectives outlined in b). Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts of society - The Acheson Report (1988) Therefore, the public health approach principles provide a useful framework for investigating and understanding the causes and effects of Health related conditions and for planning there mitigation interventions through primary prevention programmes, policy interventions and advocacy. This public health approach to prevention seeks to improve the health and safety of all individuals by addressing underlying risk factors that increase the likelihood that an individual will become vulnerable to these health conditions. The approach consists of four steps: 1.
A key contribution of the Black report was the specification of different potential explanations for health inequalities. The importance of reporting is to bring out behavioural factors that can be discussed with as well as the economic and social constraints on lifestyles being recognised with appropriate measures taken. The effect of low income makes it meaningless to consider diet a matter solely of choice. Similarly, smoking can compensate for and make bearable the consequences of material deprivation which can then be properly investigated (WHO, 2007). The Marmot Review 2010 involves the strategies for reducing health inequalities in England in relation to Global Commission on Social Determinants of Health (GCDH) and this report indicated that people who are at the lower level of socio-economic factors such as unemployed, unskilled workers, people that living in overcrowded housing, homeless people and people with limited education might find it difficult to access healthcare needs because they will always need to rely on welfare state benefits and support to survive (Goldberg, et al.
Question 3: Will your dataset help address or explain the main frustrations with the health care system in treating DHOH people with CVD-related diseases? • A comparison of these qualitative questions with the quantitative question(s) you selected for your
Public health is the prevention of disease and in the process, promoting health and safety living by the input of the society (Carr et al., 2007). Beaglehole and Bonita (2004) revealed that public health is a group of action that has come together for the same purpose of sustaining the health of a population (cited in Carr et al., 2007). The social determinants of health are not only the cause of illness but also the cause of inequalities (BMA, 2011). The first statement to define health is the (Lalonde, 1994) which states the status of health is not just only affected by biology and services of the healthcare system but also involves the collective behaviour that occurs in a society (Wilson and Mabhala, 2009). This was developed in the Ottawa
In order to improve the health of the population research must be put into action. Research and practice are the reasons for successful programs that have helped improve the help of numerous situations in the world. In order to improve and other concerns there must be improvement of the evidence-based approach. Evidence-based public health is defined as the development, implementation, and evaluation of effective programs and policies in public health through application of principles of scientific reasoning, including systematic uses of data and information systems, and appropriate use of science theory and program planning models.1 Evidence-based public health is important because it provides evidence in making decisions about the care