(Bandura, 1997 Eccles et at…1998, Marsh & Yeung 1997, Wigfield 1994) What is Achievement Motivation? It refers to the motivation is situations where the individuals competency is at issue. (Nicholls, 1984) Here the theorists try to explain why a person carries on with his functions, what motivates them, their quality of work as well as their punctuality. (Eccles, Wigfield & Schiefele, 1998) Though the means of checking this has changed over time, theorists believe that a person’s beliefs, values, goals and so on are the most important determinants for these outcomes in contrast to the acceptance that reinforcement and drive had anything to do with it. However, some of the individuals believe that the link between motivation and achievement is
Victor H. (Vroom V. H., 1964) defines motivation as an alternative form of choice for voluntary activity, a process of individual control. Individuals make their own decisions based on whether the expected result of a particular activity matches the expected result or that ultimately leads to the expected result. Motivation is the product of an individual 's expectations, and a certain amount of effort will result in the expected performance, a tool of such performance will yield certain results, and the desirability of the result for the individual. Motivation is very necessary in every organization, whether it’s a private or public enterprise. Humans are psychological beings who governed by inspiration for achieving both organizational and personal objectives.
Motivation is a personal and internal feeling- Motivation is psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. 2. Motivation is need based-If there are no needs of an individual, the process of motivation fails. It is a behavioral concept that directs human behavior towards certain goals. 3.
As we try to analyze the working behaviour of individuals we understand that in a working environment we deal with various personalities and needs. Each person may categorize money in a different position as far as his priorities are concerned in his personal hierarchy of needs. Therefore, we can assume that motive constitutes a complex equation between employers and employees. Motivation is a process that provides direction to a person in order to achieve a goal that covers his needs through creating and maintaining a goal guided behaviour (Mukherjee, 2009, p.148). Nevertheless, behaviour is not only influenced by incentives but also from variables such as individual skills, knowledge, feelings and beliefs (Werner and DeSimone, 2009, p.55).
INTRODUCTION Background of the Study According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) ,“Motivation” is “A sets of goals towards which human behaviour is directed; the process through which those goals are pursued and achieved and the social factors involved”. The types of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. “Intrinsic motivation is a psychological force that determines the way of a person’s behavior as a result of challenging or interesting work, giving autonomy to work, designed scope to develop skills, abilities, opportunity to develop and grow, etc. Extrinsic is also psychological force that determines behavioral change as a result of tangible and intangible benefit such as salary, fringe benefit and special awards” (Gareth and Jennifer, 2003).
We can see the presence of motivation when we see that people work toward certain goals. Motivation can be technically called a process of initiating action. Motivation is not always directly observable. It is inferred and used to explain behaviour. When we ask “What motivates a person to do a particular task?” Directing behaviour
When one studies the motivation of individuals, they are basically interested in the way in which people behave in certain situations. Mullins (2010) indicated that motivation can be described as the direction and persistence of an action and why individuals choose certain actions over others, especially when faced with challenges and obstacles when carrying out that particular action. Individuals are seen as having a need or expectation that needs to be filled and in order to do so, they set themselves goals. An individual’s behaviour is determined by what motivates them or drives them to achieve their goals (Mullins, 2010). The focus of this assignment is the motivation of individuals within the working environment.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW MOTIVATION DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION According to Armstrong et al (2002) motivation is related with the behavior and factors that give a reason to someone to act in a certain way to achieve their goals. There are two types of motivation according to Armstrong et al (2002), the first one is extrinsic motivation which is occur when there are something that needs to be done by someone to get a rewards in exchange of doing something, the second one is intrinsic motivation which is a factor that generated from the person itself when they are challenged with a problem in their working environment. There are quite a lot of motivation theories that are exist and still being used until know such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory. In this section the author will critically review several motivation theories, which are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McClelland Theory of Needs, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and Witt and Wright Level Expectancy Theory. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Abraham Maslow (1954, cited in Kay, 2003) hierarchical need theory, has become a very influential and the most well-known general theory of motivation and has been applied in business, marketing and tourism field.
It is likelihood for the people to perform behavior when he or she has available opportunities and resources such as money and information. Perceived behavioral control can influence an individual’s intention and action. According to Ajzen (2002), perceived behavioral control is needed to solve some situation especially when the person lack of volitional control on the behavior of interest. Hence, high level of perceived behavioral control will increase the intention. On the other hands, intention acts as motivational factors that affect the behavior.
Motivation can be described as internal forces that impact the direction, intensity, and endurance of a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour. It consists of direction, intensity and persistence. There are two types of theories that seek to explain motivation, these are content theories and process theories. Content theories also known as need theories