After the desired thickness is deposited the pattern with ceramic mold is allowed to dry in air to harden. • Removing pattern and metal pouring: The ceramic mold is heated to remove the wax pattern which melts and flows out at 150 degrees Celsius and the ceramic mold is further heated to 1000 degree Celsius to remove any impurities, moisture etc. that remains in the mold. When the mold still remains hot the metal is poured; which provides the following benefits – the dimensional accuracy is high as hot mold allows the liquid metal to flow easily allowing better dimensional accuracy and allows thin profiles to be
Heat sinking Another means of altering the heating pattern is to remove heat quickly from the welded region so that it doesn’t get spread in the plates away from the weld zone. Therefore by keeping the base metal cool, the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the base metal is not lowered and thus the residual stresses and distortions are reduced. A significant reduction in buckling distortion due to fillet welding is achieved by water
The layer called Patina shields the metal from more harm. Some common minerals with copper are cuprite (Cu2O) and Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) The properties that copper has makes it suitable for many uses. Because it is so unreactive and does not tend to corrode, it can be used for pipes, pans and electrical wires. Copper slows down the expansion and growth of bacteria and germs, because of this property, t is a very hygienic metal, that is often used for the coating of doorknobs coins and plumbing systems. Copper is also very ductile, which means it can easily be shaped into different shapes and forms.
The anode is usually a black fill composed of coke breeze or gypsum which would increase the electrical contact eith the surrounding soil. This method can be applied to water cooler having open box, water tanks, marine piers, laid up ships etc. This kind of protection technique is particularly useful for larger structure unlike Sacrificial Anodic Protection, also for long term operations. Being a quite useful process it has advantages as well as some limitations which restrict its use: Advantages- I. Replacement of anodes is not required as they are stable.
Alkaline oxygen delignification (O) is ideal for kraft operation as it takes oxidized white liquor as an alkali source and it spent liquor is reused in the kraft digester counter wash. Oxygen is poorly soluble in alkali so needs a stable gas/liquid/solid dispersion, all reactions occur at the solid-liquid interface preferably in a high consistency pulp. Oxygen delignification is complex and involves free radical mechanisms. The treatment will remove half the residual lignin without serious cellulose
When the injection chamber is full of molten plastic, the rotation of the screw stops, and a valve is opened into the mild. The screw is pushed forward, and the melt flows through the nozzle, the sprue, and the runner system into the cavity. The cavity is the inverse of the desired shape of the part to be manufactured. The process parameters such as cycle time, fill time, cooling time, injection time, injection pressure, packing time, packing pressure, holding pressure, melting temperature, mould temperature and so on need to be optimized to produce finished plastic parts with good quality. Amongst these parameters melting temperature, injection pressure, packing pressure, packing time are paid attention by the researchers due to its significant influence on the plastic product.
Vacuum bag moulding is an improvement of the hand layup, it uses a vacuum to eliminate entrapped air and excess resin, whereas the hand layup uses squeegees and roolers to get rid of the traped air. Compared to the hand layup, the vacuum method provides a higher reinforcement concentration, better infusion between layers and more control over resin and reinforcement ratio.The biggest disadvantage with this process is that the resin may cure before vacuum process is applied especially in the complex shaped geometries of the laminates. The advantages would be the vacuum bagging finished part possesses a better strength and the part is lighter. The process is not difficult and very easy to switch to, and also the materials for basic parts are affordable and can be accessed easily. Vaccuum bagging disadvantages would be the waste of money and resource, when the removal of the resin that was first brought in has to be removed again.
This is because small sprockets available in water molecules, which reduce it’s amplitude, reduce the sound level. Because of this property water is used in this silencer and hence its name AQUA SILENCER. The noise and smoke level is considerable less than the conventional silencer. Not need of catalytic converter and easy to install. Research Paper – 2 Alen.M.A et.el who worked on An Aqua Silencer is fully dealing with control of emission and noise in engine exhaust with using activated charcoal, perforated tube and outer shell it is constructed.
Another method is conventional sheet hydroforming, where, on the contrary, a rigid punch is replaced by pressurized liquids and the blank is bulged against a die. sheet hydroforming advantage is provides products with relatively good surface quality compared with that of traditional deep drawing. Tube hydroforming has many advantages such as part consolidation, weight reduction, improved part strength. Figure (1) a represents a process where the sheet hydroforming is hydraulic deep drawing (HDD). The punch has to push the sheet meatal into the die cavity as a result the oil encompass will generate a high pressure that presses the sheet metal hardly into the punch.