Gastrointestinal utility and emptying of food: The process of gastric emptying occurs both during fasting and fed states, however the pattern of motility differs markedly in the two states. During fasting state an interdigestive series of electrical events take place, which cycle both through the stomach and intestine every 2 to 3 hours (Table 1.1). This is recognized as interdigestive myeloelectric cycle or migrating myeloelectric cycle (MMC), which is further divided into four consecutive phases as explained by Wilson and Washington (Wilson CG, 1989). Phase I (Basal phase), the quiescent period, lasts from 40 to 60 minutes and is characterized by a lack of secretary, electrical and contractile activity. Phase II (Preburst phase) lasts for 40 to 60 minutes with intermittent action potential and contractions.
During this time, mating takes place. Fertilization is internal, and sperm are stored within the female’s body in a seminal receptacle and the paired spermathecae. Females reach the peak of their egg production between the fourth and seventh day after their emergence. During this time, they lay eggs almost continuously at a rate of 50–70 eggs per day. The pupal stage lasts for 3–4 days, after which the adult fly, or imago, emerges from the pupal case (eclosion).
The nasal septum bisects the nasal cavity and comprises three portions: the bony perpendicular plate of the ethmoid (superoanterior) and the vomer (posterior and anteroinferior), a cartilaginous anterior triangle, and an inferior membranous columella that divides the nares anteriorly. Laterally, the nasal wall has three or more horizontal ridges termed turbinates, with a corresponding meatus below each (Figure 1.4). During the sixth week of embryologic development, before cartilage forms in the walls of the primitive nasal cavities, linear outgrowths of the lining epithelium occur on the sides and roof of each nasal side. Each outgrowing gutter becomes a meatus, whereas the ridges left behind form the turbinates.8,16 The inferior turbinate is the largest, arising from the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. The smaller and more posterior middle, superior, and supreme (if present) turbinates are outcroppings of the ethmoid bone.
INTRODUCTION Nature has provided the foetus with many protective mechanisms against many intra uterine hazards. One such protection is Amniotic fluid, the quantity varies , increasing with growing foetus, till term. Amniotic fluid volume is related to gestational age. It measures about 50 ml at 12 week of gestation about 400ml at 20 week of gestation and 1 litre at 36-38 week of gestation. At term it measure about 600-800ml.
Within the first three days of wound repair, basic FGF from macrophages initiate angiogenesis and the subsequent injury–induced hypoxia stimulates the production of VEGF by epidermal cells followed, which sustained the angiogenesis stimulus for the next four days. Next, both plasmin and collagenase works synergistically to digest basement membranes so as to allow endothelial cells to migrate and form new blood vessels at the injured site. Once the wound is filled with new granulation tissue, angiogenesis ceases and many of the new blood vessels undergo apoptosis. On a similar note, there is continued growth of damage blood
They are fertilization of egg (ovum) and sperm, cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis and metamorphosis (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). The successful development at each stage depends on the successful complexion of the stage before. The first stage in animal development is fertilization. Fertilization is the process whereby the two sex cells (gametes) fuse together to create a new individual with genetic potential hat derived from both parents. Process of fertilization can occur in two ways; internal fertilization, process
The height of the pituitary gland varies as follows : 4.5 +/- 2 at <6 weeks gestation to 4.5+/- 0.6 mm at 5-10 years 5 +/-2 in boys 10-20 years of age 8+/-2 in girls 10-20 years of age Volume of the pituitary gland, including the posterior pituitary ranges from 174+/- 118 cmm at 6 weeks to 2 years 184 to 214 +/- 145 cmm at 2 – 5 years 226 to 277 cmm +/- 188 at 5-10 years Pituitary Dysfunction Diabetes Insipidus This occurs due to dysfunction of the paraventricular or supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Despite infiltration of the nuclei the infundibulum may appear normal in size. Imaging of the hypothalamic region excludes a hypothalamic/infundibular mass. Imaging may reveal subtle findings or maybe normal at the time of initial
Hind brain (Rhombincephalan) the hind brain contain the brain stem and the medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) form by the anterior thickening of basal plate and posterior alar plate separated by sulcus in the fourth ventricle. The hind brain continues to form the spinal cord. As like cerebrum, cerebellum has fissured mass in the posterior cranial fossa attached with brain stem by three pairs of peduncles. From the base of the brain stem the 12 pairs of cranial nerves are arising. The motor nuclei of the IX, X, XI and XII cranial nerves line in the fourth ventricle is formed by the basal plate neurons.
Within the first three days of wound repair, basic FGF from macrophages initiate angiogenesis and the subsequent injury–induced hypoxia stimulates the production of VEGF by epidermal cells. VEGF sustains the angiogenesis stimulus for the next four days. Next, both plasmin and collagenase works synergistically to digest basement membranes so as to allow the endothelial cells to migrate and form new blood vessels at the injured site. Once the wound is filled with new granulation tissues, angiogenesis ceases and many of the new blood vessels undergo apoptosis. On a similar note, there is continued growth of damage blood
The uterine tubes, otherwise called oviducts or fallopian tubes, are the female structures that vehicle the ova from the ovary to the uterus every month. In the vicinity of sperm and treatment, the uterine tubes transport the treated egg to the uterus for implantation.the uterine tubes are uterine limbs spotted reciprocally at the predominant bit of the uterine cavity. These tubes retreat the uterus through a territory alluded to as the cornua, structuring an association between the endometrial and peritoneal cavities. Every uterine tube is roughly 10 cm long and 1 cm in measurement and is arranged inside the mesosalpinx. The mesosalpinx is a fold in the expansive ligament.
A neural tube is where the brain and spinal cord form. During the first few weeks of pregnancy, an unborn baby is primarily made entirely of cells. Those cells start forming different body parts, and specific cells form the tube. This tube will go on to become part of the spinal cord, brain, and other structures such as the backbone. The top part of the tube is what the brain becomes, and the rest of the tube converts to the spinal cord.
This is considered the crucial stage. This is the stage where all development begins and the specific markers will take shape. Physical Development Many babies from age zero to two will: will increase their body dynamics height, weight, etc. between birth and age 2. They will begin growing teeth and acquire the ability to eat solid foods.
The egg we experimented on went through many dramatic changes. In its original state, the circumference was 14 cm, and it was 66.8 grams in mass. However, it was much larger after it was put in the vinegar for 48 hours, the circumference was 17 cm, and the mass was 89.1 grams. This occurred because of osmosis. Since the vinegar had more water molecules than the egg, it was transferring the molecules to the egg to create equilibrium; therefore, the egg became larger.
Cash is projected to increase from the current amount of $10,525 to $18,883 by the end of the projected year five. Accounts Receivable will increase from the current amount of $27,000 to $46,646 by the end of year five. As a result of increased sales the extra cash will be used supplemented by loans to purchase new equipment and fixed
In the next five years the revenue growth is expected to improve an average of an annual rate of 3.2% to $58.7 billion by 2019. This will be driven by increases in per capital disposable income and declining unemployment over the five-year period. Higher disposal incomes will also lead hair salon customers to spend more on higher-value services such as manicures, pedicures, facials hair modification treatments and massages. The industry profit is also expected to see gains which could encourage more new business to enter the industry. Profits have increased from 1.9% in 2009 to 5.7% in 2014.