How the Science of earthquakes was started in North America after the California Earthquake of 1906 The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 is one of the most significant earth quakes of all time. The 7.9 magnitude earthquake ruptured the northernmost 477 kilometers of the San Andreas Fault from the northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple Junction of Cape Mendocino. The earthquake caused severe damage with reports indicating that it caused more than 3,000 deaths and destroyed more than 28,000 buildings (Borcherdt, & Gibbs, 1976). The earth quake allowed planners to create a new and better city; the earthquake destroyed many buildings and in the process created room for development of a better city and new towns around San Francisco.
The earthquake happened because of the movement from the San Andreas Fault (u-s-history.com) .This little movement from the tectonic caused big things such as earthquake, but what exactly is San Andreas Fault? San Andreas fault is major fracture of the Earth’s crust in extreme western north America (Brittanica). San Andreas fault have caused so many earthquakes in U.S.A, causing many destruction, and causing lost of lifes. Now, What made Northridge Earthquake so destructive? While the Northridge earthquake was happening Californian people couldn’t predict it (u-s-history.com).
A wave measuring some 33 feet high inundated the coast and flooded parts of the city of Sendai, including its airport and the surrounding countryside. (Britannica) According to some reports, one wave destroyed from coast to some 6 miles (10 km) inland after causing the Natori River, which separates Sendai from the city of Natori to the south overflow. Damaging tsunami waves struck the coasts of Iwate prefecture, just north of Miyagi prefecture, and Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Chiba. Those prefectures are extending along the Pacific coast south of Miyagi. Which is why it was really affected.
SF Tourism Tips says, “The San Francisco 1906 Earthquake was one of the largest and most significant in Northern California. This is typically referred to as the Great San Francisco Earthquake.” The earthquake of 1906 was one of the biggest earthquakes in California history. It was measured at a magnitude of 7.8. That is a big earthquake. In the two eyewitness accounts “Comprehending the Calamity” by Emma Burke, and “Horrific wreck of
The simplest of these are the columnar sulfide chimneys at the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These chimneys are often the result of volcanic eruptions and are characterized by high temperatures (>4000C) (Tivey, 2007). Formation of these black smoker hydrothermal vents begins when metal- and sulfide-rich acid fluids mix with seawater, causing the metal sulfides to precipitate and form particle rich black plumes. The microbiological communities at the EPR sites are dominated by sulfide as the main electron donor for respiration (Jørgensen & Boetius, 2007). More complex hydrothermal vent systems are found at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG), where vigorously venting black smokers and entrainment of seawater beneath the mound trigger the remobilization of zinc (Zn) and other trace metals which are subsequently deposited
The theme of this book is about a volcanic eruption that occurred May 18th, 1980 at 8:32am at Mount St. Helens. The explosion was equal to ten million tons of dynamite and shot up into the sky for more than 12 miles. These toxic gases that shot out of the volcano covered a great deal of the forest. As a result, most of the forest was burnt down almost instantly by the massive blast.Leading up to the eruption there were many warning signs, including: large cracks in the mountain and small earthquakes. However, the eruption on May 18th was a true surprise.
On May the 18th 1980, Mt Saint Helens in Washington State, United States of America erupted covering surrounding areas in ash, mud, toxic gases and lava. Mt Saint Helens is one of many active volcanos in the Cascade Mountain Range that runs along the Pacific Coast of the United States of America, a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, named due to the many active tectonic plates in the region. The blast devastated an area of 20 square km. Within 10km of the summit, were there had previously been dense forest, no trees remained, beyond this area all trees were blown down. A further 600km2 was covered in ash and debris.