The sickle cell is an autosomal recessive means that if both parents has a form of a defective gene it can be pass to their offspring and there is a chance to be affected but if only one parent has a defective form of a gene the child will only a carrier. The signs and symptoms are anemia the red blood cells are not enough or dying, episodes of pain means that red blood vessels are blocked by shape-sickle cell it result to a pain in chest, abdomen, and joints or in bones and the sickle cell can damage the organ to fight other infections ,so it vulnerable to infections. The diagnosis is used blood testing, it detects the defective form of hemoglobin. The treatment is through Bone marrow or stem cell
4. Kidney Cysts Cysts are fluid-filled sacs. Kidney cysts are of two types: • Polycystic kidney disease tends to run in families. Cysts take over normal tissues and cause the kidneys to enlarge and work poorly. This eventually leads to kidney failure.
A dehydrated brain works harder to accomplish the same amount as a normal brain and it even temporarily shrinks because of its lack of water. Over-hydration, or hyponatremia, is usually caused by over consumption of water in short amount of time. Athletes are often the victims of over-hydration because of complications in regulating water levels in extreme physical conditions. Whereas the dehydrated brain amps up the production of antidiuretic hormone, the over-hydrated brain slows, or even stops, releasing it into the blood. Sodium electrolytes in the body become diluted, causing cells to swell.
In the past, patients had to undergo surgery, but that is no longer the case. What Is Kybella? The human body naturally manes deoxycholic acid, and this acid helps the body absorb fats. In addition, it destroys fat cells in the treatment area, but care must be taken. When used improperly, this acid may also destroy other cells in the body.
This happens because in intussusception peristalsis is disturbed and lymphatic and venous obstruction occurs causing ischemia. In term neonates, symptoms are very similar to those of other causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction3 while in preterm neonates they are very similar to those of Necrotizing
There are four types of Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Type one is the most common and severe and effects the baby while it is still inside the womb. This can result in the baby having a spall throat, because the spine bends inward. The spine could also crush the baby’s lung(s). Type two is a little less severe, because the baby isn’t effected until it is born. Type two usually affects babies ranging from 2 months all the way to adolescents.
Importantly, the fetus is tethered by an umbilical cord, whereby blood flow is constantly in jeopardy. Thus, normal labor is a process where repeated fetal hypoxic events may occur, which may lead to academia in the baby. Diagnosis- Identification of “fetal distress” based on fetal heart rate patterns is imprecise and controversial due to intra and interobserver variations. Because of high interobserver and intraobserver variability in the interpretation of fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings101, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the United States National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) convened a workshop to standardize definitions and interpretation for electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), propose management guidelines, and develop research questions. Major outputs from this workshop were a clear standard for FHR interpretation and a three-tier system for the categorization of intrapartum EFM10,12.
OROFACIAL ANOMALOIES WHAT IS OROFACIAL ANOMALY? During embryonic development, a range of craniofacial malformations may occur, leading to structural defects of the anatomical structures which are necessary for speech production. This might be due to genetic defects or some environmental factors. For e.g., the tissues of the palate and upper lip may fail to fuse during the first trimester of pregnancy, resulting in a ‘cleft of the lip, hard palate and soft palate’. These are caused due to insufficient tissue inside the mouth or lip area, and as a result the tissue that is available does not join together properly.
(b) Common parts of the brain affected by Cerebral palsy. 1.7 CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY The main cause of cerebral palsy is damage or late development of parietal lobe of the brain which controls the body movements. A child can be affected with CP during the fetal stage or shortly after birth. Major sections of the children are born with congenital cerebral palsy, in which the symptoms may not be detected until the disease is more effective. Acquired cerebral palsy is the condition where the child gets affected after the birth, injuries to the brain at the early stage of the life, infections like meningitis and encephalopathy, brain ischemia, injuries to head and even child abuse are some of the major causes.
Umbilical hernia The umbilical hernia is abdominal herniation that develops in correspondence with the umbilical scar. The umbilical hernia is typical of children, but it can also affect adults and the elderly. More often, the child's umbilical hernia is the result of a closing defect of the abdominal wall after the fall of the umbilical cord . However, some young patients are affected by this abdominal herniation due to disorders of collagen metabolism and polysaccharides , hypothyroidism congenital, Down syndrome or syndrome Fetal hydantoin ( medication used to treat epilepsy ). In adults, the ' umbilical hernia is caused by an increased pressure intra-abdominal, in turn induced ascites, cirrhosis , pregnancy, extreme efforts or malignancy.
Haemophilia is very hard to identify if someone is a carrier, the genetic disease will remain dormant until it is passed onto the offspring. There are many ways that Haemophilia can be identified or diagnosed in a patient. When an infant goes through circumcision, if prolonged bleeding continues after the circumcision occurs, that may be the first indication of haemophilia in a baby boy. In boys who aren 't circumcised, easy bruising when the child becomes more mobile may lead to the diagnosis. The first episode of bleeding generally occurs by the time a child is 2 years old.
Q1 The organs involved in the homeostatic system of salt regulation are pineal gland, pituitary glands, thyroid gland ,thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary and testis. All our bodies removes uneeded fluid by filtering your blood through your kidney, via osmosis, to draw excess water out of your blood. This requires a balance of sodium and potassium to pull the water across the wall from the bloodstream into a collecting channel in the kidney. A high salt diet will alter this sodium balance, causing the kidneys to have reduced function and remove less water resulting in higher blood pressure. This puts strain on the kidneys and can lead to kidney disease.A high salt intake has been shown to increase the amount of protein in the urine which is a major risk factor for the decline of kidney function.
(About Cystic Fibrosis) Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutated gene that changes the protein that controls the salt in and out of the cell. There are many different mutation which can change the severity of the disease in each case. For this to be passed on a child must receive one copy of the gene from each parent to develop this disease. If a child receives a copy from only one parent then
Cystic fibrosis (CF), is a disease that is inherited, or passed down through genes from parents to offspring. This disease affects the secretory glands, including the glands that produce mucus and sweat. CF develops when a person inherits two faulty CF genes, one from each parent. Parents, more than likely, don 't have the disease. CF affects many body organs, but mostly the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, and sex organs (What Is Cystic Fibrosis?, 2013).
Infants that are born before thirty-seventh week (premature infants) of pregnancy are preterm and are at a much higher risk of complications that result from the brain damage. Medical literature consists of a variety of other factors that may contribute towards neural damage, for example, abnormal development of the brain, anoxia (absence of oxygen) in the near-drowning situation, excessive neonatal asphyxia (refers to the situations when oxygen is absent for long periods of time or the presence of excess carbon dioxide which can cause tissue damage in the body), choking abuse, intracranial bleeding (excess blood in the skill pushing against brain tissue causing severe trauma), pregnancy related complications, neurotrophic virus (viruses that are capable of entering nervous system and infecting brain tissue, brain trauma and various other infectious agents (Levitt, 2011, p. 3). It has been suggested that the neuronal descending pathway from the brain, rubrospinal tract (RST) which normally mediated voluntary movement control, imperfectly overcompensates when the corticospinal tract (CST), which is the primary motor descending pathway, is damaged or injured (Cahill-Rowley & Rose, 2013). It is often possible that the cause is not certain, and in most cases knowing the cause and history of the individual with cerebral palsy may not be helpful for the physician or the