theoretically correct ratio of air and fuel which gives complete combustion) to decide lean limit and rich limit. Equivalence ratio (Phi) is the ratio of actual air-fuel ratio to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (i.e. ratio is calculated per mass basis to get correct results). To get a better stable flame conditions lean limit should be highest and rich limit should be lowest. Highest lean limit and lowest rich limit can be achieved by recirculation of the heat from products to reactants [3, 11].
High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output. CN = (u40 + 17.8) 1587.9/ ρ40 Where; u40 is the Kinematic viscosity at 40°C, mm2/sec ρ40 is the density of the fuel at 40°C, Kg/ m3 Flash Point The flash point is the temperature
Nora Azmani IB3G Chemistry HL Dr. Petersen Date of submission: 01/12/2014 Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Butanol(CH3CH2CH2CH2OH) in order to determine which one of them that is the more efficient as a fuel. Objective The purpose of this lab is to determine the fuel efficiency of the two alcohols Ethanol and Butanol, by comparing their respective enthalpy changes. The most efficient fuel will be the one with the highest enthalpy change of combustion. The enthalpy changes will be determined by examining the effect the alcohols have on the water’s temperature change. Balanced Equations for the Combustion reactions of Ethanol and Butanol: Ethanol combustion: CH3CH2OH(l)+ 3O2 (g) --> 2 CO2 (g) + 3
The ideal gas law, followed by a mole ratio were then used to calculate the volume of one mol of H_2 at ambient conditions. After that, the combined gas law was used to calculate the volume of one mol of H_2 at STP. Before calculating the experimental gas constant, the volume of air space in the flask was calculated, using the volume of empty air space in the flask and the 5 mL of HCl. Result calculations for all trials are shown in “Table 2”. (0.0107 g Mg)/1×(1 mol Mg)/(24.305 g Mg)=(4.40×〖10〗^(-4) mol Mg)/1×(1 mol H_2)/(1 mol Mg)=4.40×〖10〗^(-4) mol H_2 23.63 ̊C + 273.15 K = 296.78 K (8.1 kPa)/1×(1 atm)/(101.325 kPa)=0.0799
Figure 55 demonstrates the variation of the in-cylinder peak pressure with load for six different types of fuel. As it can be observed, the peak pressure increases with increasing the engine load. The reason behind that is that the mass flow rate of air is kept constant when the engine speed is steady ( =1700 rpm in this case) ,however the amount of fuel injected is increasing , thus the rate of mixing between air and fuel is lower which delays the ignition period
the output gases travels to the scrubber where they are cooled down by spraying distilled water from the top of the column , so the gases rise up due to its light density . By a help of a fan the gases are pulled from the scrubber to the absorber . there is a chemical in the absorber called as monoethanolamine it has a liquid nature. This chemical is used to absorb CO_2 only and according the high density of it it settled down while other gases goes out. The settled mixture at the bottom can be called as rich miya.
The oxygen gas collected was tested by using glowing wooden splinter test. In this experiment, the constant variable is the volume of hydrogen peroxide. 10 % of 5cm3 hydrogen peroxide is used in all boiling tubes in this whole entire experiment. The independent variable of the experiment is the use of different catalytic conditions.
However, I wanted to just focus on just baking soda, so another method needs to be used. If I instead were to focus on the products, the volume of gas produce could be measured. A convenient method of collecting a gas is to put the chemical in a test tube which has a delivery tube connected to it. Put a measuring cylinder filled with water upside down in a through with water, and then heat the test tube with a Bunsen burner. Since the gas has a lower mass and are less dense than water, it will be pushed out from the measuring cylinder and the gas will rise to the
The stoichiometric quantity of air is needed to completely burn the fuels. The types of pollutants is also depends upon quality of fuels, volatility and types of minerals and impurity is present in fuels (Pundir 2000). The main factors from automobile exhaust induced toxic to human health and living things are physical and chemical property of pollutants, concentration of pollutants and proportion of population exposed. To controlling the formation of pollutants it is necessary to proper maintain of the vehicles and use a durable, economical, long time stable and easily available catalyst in automobile catalytic converter system. The catalytic converter is a device it placed in the vehicle exhaust pipe for converting HC, CO and NOx into less harmful gas (Satterfield
I could have use a beaker or measuring cylinder to measure the volumes of acid and water, but chose a pipette because it's more accurate. Conical Flask I'm using a conical flask as it is a good way to react chemicals in because it allows a bung with a delivery tube to be connected to the top to collect the gas, whereas beakers you cannot. Gas Syringe I chose the gas syringe over the measuring cylinder in water because it allows me to see the product produced going up in smaller sizes because of the scale on the syringe. So the timer can be stopped exactly when it reaches the value needed. Bung and Delivery tube To ensure that no gas leaks out of the conical flask, so that the volume of gas inside is delivered to the syringe.