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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • This is a study that shows the various entry and expansion strategies that are available for a firm when choosing to go global or increase market share within the market. • There are various strategies found out , they are : Exporting and importing , Joint Ventures, Strategic Alliances, Franchising , Licensing and Foreign branching. • In exporting and importing, firms choose between direct involvement and indirect involvement. This is the level of involvement with the foreign customers. Most firms prefer direct involvement due to the costs and risk of having an intermediary do the communicating in the foreign market.
A good amount of studies in the market for corporate control have described that “mergers and acquisitions” (M&A) is an aggressive strategic growth choice to gain ownership and control over the target entity. As Trautwein (1990) mentions that M&A is usually used as a vehicle for growth, cross-border mergers and acquisitions are characterizing strong dedication and to create value from acquiring foreign targets on long-term is on high risk. It is recognized that cross-border mergers and acquisitions expand the knowledge base of the acquirer including new technology and mixture of different ways of managing the resources. To be more exact, cross-border mergers and acquisitions nowadays are used as a progressively common strategy by firms to create
Hollensen (2008) denotes three main types of entry modes as being: Export, Intermediate and Hierarchical. In the export mode a company sells directly to a distributor or dealer through exports or licensing meaning low control, low risk and a high flexibility in finding new partners in the approached market. The intermediate modes are denoted somewhere between using export modes (external partners) and hierarchical modes (internal modes), where the shared control and risks are split in the ownership via joint ventures or strategic alliances. If a producer wants greater influence and control over local marketing it needs to be through the hierarchical modes, which can range from domestic-based sales representatives to sales and production subsidiaries, with the greater control, higher risk comes also a lower level of flexibility. Page 21/209 Hence, multinational companies (MNCs) contemplating foreign market entries can often choose from exporting, licensing or franchising, contract manufacturing, equity joint ventures, wholly owned subsidiaries (Gao, 2004) and (Davis et.